This is a preview and has not been published.

Nutritional review of the methodology applied in sports supplementation research


  • Leticia Cantero Dpt. Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada. Campus of Cartuja s/n. 18071. Granada. Spain.
  • Javier Conde-Pipo Dpt. Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada. Campus of Cartuja s/n. 18071. Granada. Spain
  • Maria Jose Jimenez-Casquet Dpt. Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada. Campus of Cartuja s/n. 18071. Granada. Spain
  • Jose Antonio Latorre Dpt. Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia. Campus of Lorca (Av. Fuerzas Armadas s/n), 30800, Lorca (Murcia), Spain.
  • Nuria Gimenez-Blasi Faculty of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Avila, 05005, Avila, Spain.
  • Manuel Martinez-Bebia Dpt. Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia. Campus of Lorca (Av. Fuerzas Armadas s/n), 30800, Lorca (Murcia), Spain.
  • Anna Bach-Faig FoodLab Research Group (2017SGR 83), School of Health Sciences, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), Spain.
  • Fatima Olea-Serrano Dpt. Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada. Campus of Cartuja s/n. 18071. Granada. Spain.
  • Miguel Mariscal-Arcas Dpt. Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada. Campus of Cartuja s/n. 18071. Granada. Spain.



Review, supplementation, methodology, nutrition, sample, surveys


Both high-performance athletes and amateurs resort to taking supplements in order to improve their performance and/or their health. Many of them do not know the effects of these and take them without a professional supervision. The aim is to know the population who is studied by other different studies related to supplementation and improvement of sports performance and the nutritional method used in these cases.Systematic bibliographic research (March-May2021) was carried out in MEDLINE, with Boolean operators (((((caffeine[MeSH Major Topic]) OR (creatine[MeSH Major Topic])) OR (nitrate[MeSH Major Topic])) OR (sodium bicarbonate[MeSH Major Topic])) AND (dietary supplement[MeSH Terms])) AND (athletic performance[MeSH Terms]). 17 articles were included.Mean participants of these studies were 16.8subjects, which corresponds to a small sample. Only two studies were conducted to women. Several others were based on people who are not considered high-performance. In most of the selected studies, there is no a nutritional assessment, dietary record or follow-up of the subjects' diet before and during the intervention, and this is a limitation.In order to reach accurate conclusions about supplementation and optimization of sports performance, it is necessary to know the nutritional and hydration status, supplementation habits and lifestyle of the participants in these trials are.


Download data is not yet available.


Doc-consenso-ayudas-2019.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 5]. Available from:

ConsensoAyudasErgogenicasFemede.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 5]. Available from:

Position-Statement-Supplements-and-Sports-Foods-abridged_v2.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 4]. Available from:

36194_Sport-supplement-fact-sheets-Beetroot-Juice-Nitrate-v3.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 18]. Available from:

Sport-supplement-fact-sheets-Sodium-bicarbonate-v4.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 18]. Available from:

San Juan AF, López-Samanes Á, Jodra P, Valenzuela PL, Rueda J, Veiga-Herreros P, et al. Caffeine Supplementation Improves Anaerobic Performance and Neuromuscular Efficiency and Fatigue in Olympic-Level Boxers. Nutrients. 2019 Sep 5;11(9).

Schäfer LU, Hayes M, Dekerle J. Creatine supplementation improves performance above critical power but does not influence the magnitude of neuromuscular fatigue at task failure. Exp Physiol. 2019;104(12):1881–91.

VAN Cutsem J, Roelands B, Pluym B, Tassignon B, Verschueren JO, DE Pauw K, et al. Can Creatine Combat the Mental Fatigue-associated Decrease in Visuomotor Skills? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2020 Jan;52(1):120–30.

Ansdell P, Dekerle J. Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation Delays Neuromuscular Fatigue Without Changes in Performance Outcomes During a Basketball Match Simulation Protocol. J Strength Cond Res. 2020 May;34(5):1369–75.

Liubertas T, Kairaitis R, Stasiule L, Capkauskiene S, Stasiulis A, Viskelis P, et al. The influence of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) dietary nitrates on the aerobic capacity of physically active young persons. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020 Jul 13;17(1):37.

Durkalec-Michalski K, Zawieja EE, Podgórski T, Zawieja BE, Michałowska P, Łoniewski I, et al. The Effect of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Loading Regimen on Anaerobic Capacity and Wrestling Performance. Nutrients [Internet]. 2018 May 30 [cited 2021 May 24];10(6). Available from:

Durkalec-Michalski K, Zawieja EE, Zawieja BE, Michałowska P, Podgórski T. The gender dependent influence of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on anaerobic power and specific performance in female and male wrestlers. Sci Rep. 2020 Feb 5;10(1):1878.

Hahn CJ, Jagim AR, Camic CL, Andre MJ. Acute Effects of a Caffeine-Containing Supplement on Anaerobic Power and Subjective Measurements of Fatigue in Recreationally Active Men. J Strength Cond Res. 2018 Apr;32(4):1029–35.

Morales AP, Sampaio-Jorge F, Barth T, Pierucci APTR, Ribeiro BG. Caffeine Supplementation for 4 Days Does Not Induce Tolerance to the Ergogenic Effects Promoted by Acute Intake on Physiological, Metabolic, and Performance Parameters of Cyclists: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover, Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients. 2020 Jul 16;12(7).

Garnacho-Castaño MV, Palau-Salvà G, Serra-Payá N, Ruiz-Hermosel M, Berbell M, Viñals X, et al. Understanding the effects of beetroot juice intake on CrossFit performance by assessing hormonal, metabolic and mechanical response: a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020 Nov 13;17(1):56.

Cuenca E, Jodra P, Pérez-López A, González-Rodríguez LG, Fernandes da Silva S, Veiga-Herreros P, et al. Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Performance and Fatigue in a 30-s All-Out Sprint Exercise: A Randomized, Double-Blind Cross-Over Study. Nutrients. 2018 Sep 4;10(9).

Domínguez R, Veiga-Herreros P, Sánchez-Oliver AJ, Montoya JJ, Ramos-Álvarez JJ, Miguel-Tobal F, et al. Acute Effects of Caffeine Intake on Psychological Responses and High-Intensity Exercise Performance. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 12;18(2).

Jodra P, Lago-Rodríguez A, Sánchez-Oliver AJ, López-Samanes A, Pérez-López A, Veiga-Herreros P, et al. Effects of caffeine supplementation on physical performance and mood dimensions in elite and trained-recreational athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020 Jan 3;17(1):2.

Dumar AM, Huntington AF, Rogers RR, Kopec TJ, Williams TD, Ballmann CG. Acute Beetroot Juice Supplementation Attenuates Morning-Associated Decrements in Supramaximal Exercise Performance in Trained Sprinters. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 7;18(2).

Fett CA, Aquino NM, Schantz Junior J, Brandão CF, de Araújo Cavalcanti JD, Fett WC. Performance of muscle strength and fatigue tolerance in young trained women supplemented with caffeine. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2018 Mar;58(3):249–55.

Giráldez-Costas V, González-García J, Lara B, Coso JD, Wilk M, Salinero JJ. Caffeine Increases Muscle Performance During a Bench Press Training Session. J Hum Kinet. 2020 Aug;74:185–93.

Lara B, Gutiérrez Hellín J, Ruíz-Moreno C, Romero-Moraleda B, Del Coso J. Acute caffeine intake increases performance in the 15-s Wingate test during the menstrual cycle. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2020 Apr;86(4):745–52.

Lwanga SK, Lemeshow S, Organization WH. Determinación del tamaño de las muestras en los estudios sanitarios : manual práctico [Internet]. Ginebra : Organización Mundial de la Salud; 1991 [cited 2021 Jun 18]. Available from:

García-García JA, Reding-Bernal A, López-Alvarenga JC. Cálculo del tamaño de la muestra en investigación en educación médica. Investig En Educ Médica. 2013 Oct 1;2(8):217–24.

Metodología investigación: Determinación del tamaño muestral [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jun 18]. Available from:

Actualización sobre deficiencias nutricionales en la mujer deportista a partir de la literatura científica [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jun 18]. Available from:

París C. Influencia del sexo en la práctica deportiva. Biología de la mujer deportista. Arbor Cienc Pensam Cult. 2000 Feb 28;165.

Ayala V, Martínez-Bebia M, Latorre JA, Gimenez-Blasi N, Jimenez-Casquet MJ, Conde-Pipo J, et al. Influence of circadian rhythms on sports performance. Chronobiol Int. 2021 Jun 1;1–15.

Indicadores del rendimiento deportivo: aspectos psicológicos, fisiológicos, bioquímicos y antropométricos [Internet]. [cited 2021 Jun 17]. Available from:

Jodra P, Domínguez R, Sánchez-Oliver AJ, Veiga-Herreros P, Bailey SJ. Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Mood, Perceived Exertion, and Performance During a 30-Second Wingate Test. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2020 Feb 1;15(2):243–8.

Pardo Lozano R, Alvarez García Y, Barral Tafalla D, Farré Albaladejo M. Cafeína: un nutriente, un fármaco, o una droga de abuso. Adicciones. 2007 Sep 1;19(3):225.

Barreda-Abascal R, Molina L, Haro-Valencia R, Alford C, Verster JC. Actualización sobre los efectos de la cafeína y su perfil de seguridad en alimentos y bebidas. Rev Médica Hosp Gen México. 2012 Jan 1;75(1):60–7.

Palacin-Arce A, Monteagudo C, Beas-Jimenez J de D, Olea-Serrano F, Mariscal-Arcas M. Proposal of a Nutritional Quality Index (NQI) to Evaluate the Nutritional Supplementation of Sportspeople. PloS One. 2015;10(5):e0125630.

Hamdan M, Monteagudo C, Lorenzo-Tovar M-L, Tur J-A, Olea-Serrano F, Mariscal-Arcas M. Development and validation of a nutritional questionnaire for the Palestine population. Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov;17(11):2512–8.

Mariscal-Arcas M, Caballero-Plasencia MLA, Monteagudo C, Hamdan M, Pardo-Vasquez MI, Olea-Serrano F. Validation of questionnaires to estimate adherence to the Mediterranean diet and life habits in older individuals in Southern Spain. J Nutr Health Aging. 2011 Nov;15(9):739–43.

Serra L. Metodología de los estudios nutricionales. Act DIETÉTICA. 2001;6.

Gimeno E. Medidas empleadas para evaluar el estado nutricional. Offarm. 2003 Mar 1;22(3):96–100.

Javier Aranceta -. Documento de consenso y conclusiones. La metodología de las encuestas alimentarias, estudios. Rev Esp Nutr COMUNITARIA. 2015 Mar 1;(2):7–8.

Juan Mielgo-Ayuso BM-S Raquel Luzardo-Socorro, Gonzalo Palacios, Nieves,-. Valoración del estado nutricional y del gasto energético en deportistas. Rev Esp Nutr COMUNITARIA. 2015 Mar 1;(2):225–34.

Consenso hidratacion.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2021 May 14]. Available from:




Most read articles by the same author(s)