Exploring the Impacts of Smoking, Nutrition and Physical Activity on Pulmonary Functions
Keywords:physical activity, pulmonary functions, sports, nutrition
. Study Objectives: Poor nutrition and smoking may bring the risks of many health problems in respiratory functions. Such risks are exacerbated by unhealthy diets and a sedentary lifestyle. The present study aimed to explore the impacts of smoking, poor nutrition and physical activity on pulmonary functions. Methods: We obtained the data regarding the participants’ consisted of 93 (50.5%) males and 91 (49.5%) females and smoking, nutrition and physical activity status through focus group interviews. Then, we recruited them to pulmonary function tests through ergospirometry (Quark PFT, Cosmed, Italy) twice and utilized the result of the most efficient procedure. The test results were evaluated by a specialist physician on expected and measured values of the FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF, and MEF25-75 measurements of the test. We analyzed the data using independent and dependent samples t-tests and a logistic regression analysis on SPSS 22. Results: According to the findings of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the research data showed a normal distribution (p > 0.05). Thus, we compared the dichotomous variables using a Paired Samples t-test. We performed a logistic regression analysis to explore the predictive impact of smoking, poor nutrition and physical activity on the parameters of the pulmonary test. The findings revealed that smoking significantly predicted FVC (p = 0.008), FEV1 (p = 0.001), and MEF25-75 (p = 0.000). Yet, it was not the case for FEV1-FVC (p = 0.059) and PEF (p = 0.433). On the other hand, physical activity significantly predicted FVC (p = 0.000), FEV1 (p = 0.000), FEV1-FVC (p = 0.06, and MEF25-75 (p = 0.000). However, we could not suggest the physical activity to predict PEF (p = 0.062) significantly. Conclusion: Overall, we concluded that smoking and had positive predictive impacts on pulmonary functions and that nutrition did not have any predictive effects on pulmonary functions.
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