Exploring the impacts of smoking, nutrition and physical activity on pulmonary functions
Main Article Content
physical activity, pulmonary functions, sports, nutrition
Study Objectives: The study aimed to explore the impacts of smoking, poor nutrition, and physical activity on pulmonary functions. Methods: We obtained the data regarding the participants’ consisted of 93 (50.5%) males and 91 (49.5%) females and smoking, nutrition, and physical activity status through focus group interviews. We recruited them to pulmonary function tests through ergospirometry twice. The results were evaluated by a specialist physician on expected and measured values of the FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF, and MEF25-75 measurements. We analyzed the data using independent and dependent samples t-tests and logistic regression analysis on SPSS 22. Results: According to the findings of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the research data showed a normal distribution (p > 0.05). Thus, we compared the dichotomous variables using Paired Samples t-test. We performed a logistic regression analysis to explore the predictive impact of smoking, poor nutrition, and physical activity on the parameters of the pulmonary test. The findings revealed that smoking significantly predicted FVC (p = 0.008), FEV1 (p = 0.001), and MEF25-75 (p = 0.000). Yet, it was not the case for FEV1-FVC (p = 0.059) and PEF (p = 0.433). On the other hand, physical activity significantly predicted FVC (p = 0.000), FEV1 (p = 0.000), FEV1-FVC (p = 0.06, and MEF25-75 (p = 0.000). However, we could not suggest that physical activity predicts PEF (p = 0.062) significantly. Conclusion: We concluded that smoking, and had positive predictive impacts on pulmonary functions and that nutrition did not have any predictive effects on pulmonary functions.
2. Anderson R, Theron AJ, Ras GJ. Regulation by the antioxidants ascorbate, cysteine, and dapsone of the increased extracellular and intracellular generation of reactive oxidants by activated phagocytes from cigarette smokers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 135: 1027-1032.
3. Gomes R, Luis F, Tavares A, et al. Respiratory functional evaluation and pulmonary hyperinflation in asymptomatic smokers: preliminary study. Rev Port Pneumol 2015;21:126–31.
4. Maritz GS, Mutemwa M. Tobacco smoking: patterns, health consequences for adults, and the long-term health of the offspring. Glob J Health Sci 2012;4:62–75.
5. Jayes L, Haslam PL, Gratziou CG, et al. SmokeHaz: systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effects of smoking on respiratory health. Chest 2016;150:164–79.
6. Edwards R. The problem of tobacco smoking. BMJ 2004;328:217–9.
7. Nye RT, Mercincavage M, Branstetter SA. Time to first cigarette, physical activity, and pulmonary function in middle-aged to older adult smokers. J Phys Act Health 2017;14:612–6.
8. Juusela M, Pallasaho P, Ronmark E, et al. Dose-dependent association of smoking and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Eur Respir J 2013;42:1503–12.
9. Powell R, Davidson D, Divers J, et al. Genetic ancestry and the relationship of cigarette smoking to lung function and per cent emphysema in four race/ethnic groups: a cross-sectional study. Thorax 2013;68:634–42.
10. Gibbs K, Collaco JM, & McGrath-Morrow SA. Impact of tobacco smoke and nicotine exposure on lung development. Chest Journal 2016; 149(2): 552–561. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest. 15-1858
11. Simmons MS, Connett JE, Nides MA, Lindgren PG, Kleerup EC, Murray RP, Tashkin D P. (2005). Smoking reduction and the rate of decline in FEV1: Results from the lung health study. European Respiratory Journal 2005; 25(6): 1011–1017. https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.05.00086804
12. Forey BA, Thornton AJ, & Lee PN. Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence relating smoking to COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011; 11: 36. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2466-11-36
13. Taş GŞ, & Kandemir A. Kolorektal Polipde Kronik Obstrüktif Akciğer Hastalığı Sıklığı ve Sistemik İnflamasyonla İlişkisi. Kocaeli Tıp Dergisi 2019; 8(2): 103-109.
14. Twisk JW, Staal BJ, Brinkman MN, et al. Tracking of lung function parameters and the longitudinal relationship with lifestyle. Eur Respir J 1998;12:627–34.
15. Fogelholm M. Physical activity, fitness and fatness: Relations to mortality, morbidity and disease risk factors. A systematic review. Obesity Reviews 2010; 11(3): 202–221. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00653.x
16. Lahti J, Holstila A, Lahelma E, & Rahkonen O. Leisuretime physical activity and all-cause mortality. PLoS One 2014;9(7):e101548. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101548
17. Smith AM, Floerke VA, Thomas AK. Retrieval practice protects memory against acute stress. Science 2016;354(6315):1046-1048. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aah5067
18. Gimeno-Santos E, Frei A, Steurer-Stey C, de Batlle J, Rabinovich RA, Raste Y, PROactive consortium. Determinants and outcomes of physical activity in patients with COPD: A systematic review. Thorax 2014; 69(8): 731–739. https:// doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204763
19. Paulo R, Petrica J, & Martins J. Physical activity and respiratory function: Corporal composition and spirometric values analysis. Acta Medica Portuguesa 2013; 26(3): 258–264.
20. Heffernan KS, Jae SY, Vieira VJ, Iwamoto GA, Wilund KR, Woods JA, Fernhall B. C-reactive protein and cardiac vagal activity following resistance exercise training in young African-American and white men. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Apr;296(4):R1098-105. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.90936.2008
21 Saadeh, D.; Salameh, P.; Baldi, I.; Raherison, C. Diet and allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years: Myth or reality? Nutrients 2013, 5, 3399–3423.
22 Grieger, J.; Wood, L.; Clifton, V. Improving asthma during pregnancy with dietary antioxidants: The current evidence. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3212–3234.
23 Butland, B.K.; Fehily, A.M.; Elwood, P.C. Diet, lung function, and lung function decline in a cohort of 2512 middle aged men. Thorax 2000, 55, 102–108.
24. Carey, I.M.; Strachan, D.P.; Cook, D.G. Effects of changes in fresh fruit consumption on ventilatory function in healthy British adults. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1998, 158, 728–733.
25. Kaczynski AT, Manske SR, Mannell RC, & Grewal K. (2008). Smoking and physical activity: A systematic review. American Journal of Health Behavior 2008; 32(1): 93–110. https://doi.org/10. 5993/AJHB.32.1.9
26. Campbell Jenkins BW, Sarpong DF, Addison C, White MS, Hickson DA, White W, & Burchfiel C. Joint effects of smoking and sedentary lifestyle on lung function in African Americans: The Jackson heart study cohort. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2014; 11(2): 1500–1519. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110201500
27. Holmen TL, Barrett-Connor E, Clausen J, Holmen J, & Bjermer L. Physical exercise, sports, and lung function in smoking versus nonsmoking adolescents. The European Respiratory Journal 2002; 19(1): 8–15. https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.02.00203502
28. Michalak K, Gatkiewicz M, Pawlicka-Lisowska A, & Poziomska Piatkowska E. The influence of swimming activity on lung function parameters among smoking and non-smoking youth. Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, 2012; 33(193): 13–19.
29. García-Río F, Calle M, Burgos F, Casan P, Del Campo F, Galdiz JB, Giner J, González-Mangado N, Ortega F, Puente Maestu L; Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR). Spirometry. Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR). Arch Bronconeumol. 2013 Sep;49(9):388-401. English, Spanish. doi: 10.1016/j.arbres.2013.04.001
30. Martinez FD. (2016). Early-life origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The New England Journal of Medicine 2016; 375(9): 871–878. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1603287
31. Kuh D, & Ben-Shlomon Y. A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology (2nd ed.) 2004. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
32. Shaheen S. The beginnings of chronic airflow obstruction. British Medical Bulletin 1997; 53(1): 58–70. https://doi.org/10.1093/ oxfordjournals.bmb.a011606
33. Allinson JP, Hardy R, Donaldson GC, Shaheen SO, Kuh D, & Wedzicha JA. The presence of chronic mucus hypersecretion across adult life in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2016; 193(6): 662–672. https://doi.org/10. 1164/rccm.201511-2210OC
34. Gold DR, Wang X, Wypij D, Speizer FE, Ware JH, & Dockery DW. Effects of cigarette smoking on lung function in adolescent boys and girls. The New England Journal of Medicine 1996; 335(13): 931–937. https://doi.org/10.1056/ NEJM199609263351304
35. Merghani TH, & Saeed AM. The relationship between regular second-hand smoke exposure at home and indictors of lung function in healthy school boys in Khartoum. Tobacco Control 2012; 22(5): 315–318. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol2011-050169
36. Bird Y, & Staines-Orozco H. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and second-hand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2016; 11: 1459–1467. https://doi. org/10.2147/COPD.S102999
37. Vianna EO, Gutierrez MR., Barbieri MA, Caldeira RD, Bettiol H, & Da Silva AA. Respiratory effects of tobacco smoking among young adults. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 2008; 336(1): 44–49. https://doi.org/10. 1097/MAJ.0b013e31815c3b47
38. Urrutia I, Capelastegui A, Quintana JM, Muñiozguren N, Basagana X, Sunyer J, & Spanish Group of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS-I). Smoking habit, respiratory symptoms and lung function in young adults. European Journal of Public Health 2005; 15(2): 160–165. https://doi. org/10.1093/eurpub/cki113
39. Nystad W, Samuelsen SO, Nafstad P, & Langhammer A. Association between level of physical activity and lung function among Norwegian men and women: The HUNT study. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2006; 10(12): 1399–1405.
40. Al-Ghimlas F; Todd D.C. Creatine supplementation for patients with COPD receiving pulmonary rehabilitation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology 2010; 15: 785–795.
41. Morimitsu Y, Nakagawa Y, Hayashi K, Fujii H, Kumagai T, Nakamura Y, Osawa T, Horio F, Itoh K, Iida K, et al. A sulforaphane analogue that potently activates the Nrf2- dependent detoxification pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 2002; 277: 3456–3463.
42. Meja K.K, Rajendrasozhan S, Adenuga D, Biswas S.K, Sundar I.K, Spooner G, Marwick J.A, Chakravarty P, Fletcher D, Whittaker P, et al. Curcumin restores corticosteroid function in monocytes exposed to oxidants by maintaining HDAC2. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 2008; 39: 312–323.
43. Engelen M.P, Rutten E.P, de Castro C.L, Wouters E.F, Schols A.M, Deutz N.E. Supplementation of soy protein with branched-chain amino acids alters protein metabolism in healthy elderly and even more in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2007; 85: 431–439.
44. Dal Negro R.W, Aquilani R, Bertacco S, Boschi F.M.C, Tognella S. Comprehensive effects of supplemented essential amino acids in patients with severe COPD and sarcopenia. Monaldi Arch. Chest Dis. 2010; 73: 25–33.