This is a preview and has not been published.

Investigating the Mediterranean Diet's Role in Alzheimer's disease Prevention: A Review


  • Dhananjay Yadav Dr. Dhananjay YadavReserach ProfessorDepartment of Medical BiotechnologyYeungnam University, Gyeongsan-Si, Gyeongbuk, KoreaPhone number - 01022021191
  • Anju Meshram



Alzheimer Disease; Mediterranean Diet; Bioactive Compounds; Neurodegeneration; Nutriepigenomics;


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the highest predominant style of dementia, is a neurological disorder that worsens over time and has no known treatment. AD research is paying more and more attention to lifestyle factors, including diet and nutrition. The Mediterranean diet (MeDi) may offer defence against dementia and cognitive deterioration, according to some research. According to various epidemiological studies, people who follow a MeDi have a lower risk of developing cognitive problems. Higher MeDi adherence was linked to a lower likelihood of incident cognitive impairment, whereas lower adherence was linked to a rise in AD and mild cognitive impairment.

Progressive AD biomarker abnormalities have been linked to lower MeDi adherence in middle-aged adults. Reduced vascular risk factors and favourable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism may also contribute to the MeDi's lower risk of AD. The MeDi may have preventive effects against cognitive decline, including AD, because to some of its components, including its high fruit and vegetable content, relatively low level of carbs, and usage of added-virgin olive oil as the primary basis of fat. However, other aspects of the Mediterranean lifestyle, such consistent exercise and robust social networks, might help lower the risk of the illness. To prove a link between MeDi and the prevention or amelioration of cognitive loss in AD, long-term randomised controlled trials are required. Since it is unknown what specific food components and bioactives are needed for efficient neuroprotection, it is currently not practical to prescribe the MeDi as a preventive measure in AD. According to the available evidence, the MeDi should be implemented as part of public health initiatives aimed at lowering the risk of AD. To prove a link between MeDi and the prevention or amelioration of cognitive loss in AD, however, long-term randomised controlled trials are required.


Download data is not yet available.


Hebert LE, Weuve J, Scherr PA, Evans DA. Alzheimer disease in the United States (2010–2050) estimated using the 2010 census. Neurology 2013; 80: 1778-83.

Marras C, Beck JC, Bower JH et al. Prevalence of Parkinson's disease across North America. NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2018; 4: 21.

Grant WB. Using multicountry ecological and observational studies to determine dietary risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2016; 35: 476-89.

Jackson A, Forsyth CB, Shaikh M et al. Diet in Parkinson's disease: critical role for the microbiome. Frontiers in Neurology 2019; 10: 1245.

Sarkar SR, Banerjee S. Gut microbiota in neurodegenerative disorders. Journal of neuroimmunology 2019; 328: 98-104.

Petrella C, Di Certo MG, Gabanella F et al. Mediterranean diet, brain and muscle: olive polyphenols and resveratrol protection in neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders. Current Medicinal Chemistry 2021; 28: 7595-613.

Shen J, Wilmot KA, Ghasemzadeh N et al. Mediterranean dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Annual review of nutrition 2015; 35: 425-49.

Martínez-González MA, Salas-Salvadó J, Estruch R et al. Benefits of the Mediterranean diet: insights from the PREDIMED study. Progress in cardiovascular diseases 2015; 58: 50-60.

Gouveri E, Diamantopoulos EJ. The Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome. The Mediterranean Diet: Elsevier; 2015. p. 313-23.

Organization WH. Fostering Healthier and More Sustainable Diets–Learning from the Mediterranean and New Nordic Experience. 2018.

Chianese R, Coccurello R, Viggiano A et al. Impact of dietary fats on brain functions. Current neuropharmacology 2018; 16: 1059-85.

De Pergola G, D’Alessandro A. Influence of Mediterranean diet on blood pressure. Nutrients 2018; 10: 1700.

Carito V, Ceccanti M, Tarani L, Ferraguti G, N Chaldakov G, Fiore M. Neurotrophins' modulation by olive polyphenols. Current Medicinal Chemistry 2016; 23: 3189-97.

O'neill RF, Brennan L, Prinelli F et al. PROtein enriched MEDiterranean diet to combat undernutrition and promote healthy neuroCOGnitive ageing in older adults: The PROMED‐COG consortium project. Nutrition Bulletin 2022; 47: 356-65.

Scarmeas N, Stern Y, Tang MX, Mayeux R, Luchsinger JA. Mediterranean diet and risk for Alzheimer's disease. Annals of Neurology: Official Journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society 2006; 59: 912-21.

Livingston G, Sommerlad A, Orgeta V et al. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care. The lancet 2017; 390: 2673-734.

Anastasiou CA, Yannakoulia M, Kontogianni MD et al. Mediterranean lifestyle in relation to cognitive health: results from the HELIAD study. Nutrients 2018; 10: 1557.

Limongi F, Siviero P, Bozanic A, Noale M, Veronese N, Maggi S. The effect of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on late-life cognitive disorders: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2020; 21: 1402-9.

Richard C, Couture P, Desroches S, Lamarche B. Effect of the Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on markers of inflammation in men with metabolic syndrome. Obesity 2013; 21: 51-7.

Gardener H, Caunca MR. Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegenerative diseases. Current nutrition reports 2018; 7: 10-20.

Gardener H, Wright CB, Rundek T, Sacco RL. Brain health and shared risk factors for dementia and stroke. Nature Reviews Neurology 2015; 11: 651-7.

Milošević M, Arsić A, Cvetković Z, Vučić V. Memorable food: fighting age-related neurodegeneration by precision nutrition. Frontiers in Nutrition 2021; 8: 688086.

Martin EM, Fry RC. Environmental Influences on the Epigenome: Exposure- Associated DNA Methylation in Human Populations. Annu Rev Public Health 2018; 39: 309-33.

Zhong J, Karlsson O, Wang G et al. B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pilot human intervention trial. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2017; 114: 3503-8.

Dolinoy DC, Huang D, Jirtle RL. Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2007; 104: 13056-61.

Bae S, Kamynina E, Guetterman HM et al. Provision of folic acid for reducing arsenic toxicity in arsenic‐exposed children and adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2021.

Izquierdo-Torres E, Hernández-Oliveras A, Meneses-Morales I, Rodríguez G, Fuentes-García G, Zarain-Herzberg Á. Resveratrol up-regulates ATP2A3 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines through epigenetic mechanisms. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 2019; 113: 37-47.

Wilkins LJ, Monga M, Miller AW. Defining Dysbiosis for a Cluster of Chronic Diseases. Sci Rep 2019; 9: 12918.

Zinöcker MK, Lindseth IA. The Western Diet-Microbiome-Host Interaction and Its Role in Metabolic Disease. Nutrients 2018; 10.

Gillette-Guyonnet S, Secher M, Vellas B. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2013; 75: 738-55.

Ballarini T, Melo van Lent D, Brunner J et al. Mediterranean Diet, Alzheimer Disease Biomarkers and Brain Atrophy in Old Age. Neurology 2021; 96: e2920-32.

Stern Y, Arenaza‐Urquijo EM, Bartrés‐Faz D et al. Whitepaper: Defining and investigating cognitive reserve, brain reserve, and brain maintenance. Alzheimer's & Dementia 2020; 16: 1305-11.

Martinez-Lapiscina EH, Clavero P, Toledo E et al. Virgin olive oil supplementation and long-term cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized, trial. The journal of nutrition, health & aging 2013; 17: 544-52.

Qosa H, Mohamed LA, Batarseh YS et al. Extra-virgin olive oil attenuates amyloid-β and tau pathologies in the brains of TgSwDI mice. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2015; 26: 1479-90.

Armeli F, Bonucci A, Maggi E, Pinto A, Businaro R. Mediterranean Diet and Neurodegenerative Diseases: The Neglected Role of Nutrition in the Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System. Biomolecules 2021; 11.

Hernández JM, Rentero MPZ. Bioactive compounds contained in Mediterranean Diet and their effects on neurodegenerative diseases. Current Topics on Superfoods; InTech Open: London, UK 2018; 2: 13-31.

Roberts BR, Ryan TM, Bush AI, Masters CL, Duce JA. The role of metallobiology and amyloid‐β peptides in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of neurochemistry 2012; 120: 149-66.

Granzotto A, Zatta P. Resveratrol and Alzheimer’s disease: message in a bottle on red wine and cognition. Frontiers in aging neuroscience 2014; 6: 95.

Plassman BL, Williams Jr JW, Burke JR, Holsinger T, Benjamin S. Systematic review: factors associated with risk for and possible prevention of cognitive decline in later life. Annals of internal medicine 2010; 153: 182-93.

Sofi F. The Mediterranean diet revisited: evidence of its effectiveness grows. Current opinion in cardiology 2009; 24: 442-6.

Takaoka M. Of the phenolic substrate of hellebore (Veratrum grandiflorum Loes. fil.). J Fac Sci Hokkaido Imper Univ 1940; 3: 1-16.

Langcake P, Pryce R. The production of resveratrol by Vitis vinifera and other members of the Vitaceae as a response to infection or injury. Physiological Plant Pathology 1976; 9: 77-86.

Ahmed T, Javed S, Javed S et al. Resveratrol and Alzheimer’s disease: mechanistic insights. Molecular neurobiology 2017; 54: 2622-35.

Shi J, He M, Cao J et al. The comparative analysis of the potential relationship between resveratrol and stilbene synthase gene family in the development stages of grapes (Vitis quinquangularis and Vitis vinifera). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 2014; 74: 24-32.

Hardeland R, Pandi-Perumal S. Melatonin, a potent agent in antioxidative defense: actions as a natural food constituent, gastrointestinal factor, drug and prodrug. Nutrition & metabolism 2005; 2: 1-15.

Sprenger J, Hardeland R, Fuhrberg B, Han S-Z. Melatonin and other 5-methoxylated indoles in yeast: presence in high concentrations and dependence on tryptophan availability. Cytologia 1999; 64: 209-13.

Fernández-Mar M, Mateos R, Garcia-Parrilla MC, Puertas B, Cantos-Villar E. Bioactive compounds in wine: Resveratrol, hydroxytyrosol and melatonin: A review. Food chemistry 2012; 130: 797-813.

Miller E, Morel A, Saso L, Saluk J. Melatonin redox activity. Its potential clinical applications in neurodegenerative disorders. Current topics in medicinal chemistry 2015; 15: 163-9.

Liu G, Aliaga L, Cai H. α-synuclein, LRRK2 and their interplay in Parkinson’s disease. Future neurology 2012; 7: 145-53.

Weishaupt JH, Bartels C, Pölking E et al. Reduced oxidative damage in ALS by high‐dose enteral melatonin treatment. Journal of pineal research 2006; 41: 313-23.

Zhang Y, Cook A, Kim J et al. Melatonin inhibits the caspase-1/cytochrome c/caspase-3 cell death pathway, inhibits MT1 receptor loss and delays disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurobiology of disease 2013; 55: 26-35.

Mateos R, Espartero JL, Trujillo M et al. Determination of phenols, flavones, and lignans in virgin olive oils by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array ultraviolet detection. J Agric Food Chem 2001; 49: 2185-92.

Bazoti FN, Bergquist J, Markides KE, Tsarbopoulos A. Noncovalent interaction between amyloid-β-peptide (1–40) and oleuropein studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 2006; 17: 568-75.

González-Correa JA, Navas MD, Lopez-Villodres JA, Trujillo M, Espartero JL, De La Cruz JP. Neuroprotective effect of hydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol acetate in rat brain slices subjected to hypoxia–reoxygenation. Neuroscience letters 2008; 446: 143-6.

Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 2009; 2: 270-8.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>