This is a preview and has not been published.

Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation during Exercises on Blood Fatigue and Energy Metabolism Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors

  • Yongzhen Zhu School of Economics and Management, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430000, China
  • Qiaoliang Wang Jinling college, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu ,210000, China
  • Mohammad Hossein Rahimi a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:36:"Tehran university of medical science";}

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.23751/pn.v24i3.12436

Keywords:

L-Carnitine; lactate; fatigue; glucose; energy metabolites; meta-analysis

Abstract

Background: Probably L-Carnitine can induce the reduction of lactate production and improvements of performance due to the long chain fatty acid oxidation reinforcement. According to this, the aim of this review was to assess the effects of L-Carnitine consumption on blood lactate and glucose.

Methods: Scopus, Medline and Google scholar systematically searched up to April 2021. The Cochrane Collaboration tool used for the quality of studies. Random effects model, weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) applied for the overall effect estimating. The heterogeneity between studies evaluated applying the chi-squared and I2 statistic.

Results: The outcomes showed a significant effect of L-Carnitine supplementation on reducing lactate (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.65 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.86, -0.43; P <0.001)). In addition, a subgroup analysis indicated a significant reduction in lactate concentrations, according to some of follow-ups post exercise, all dose of L-Carnitine and duration of studies, both aerobic and anaerobic exercise type, both trained and untrained participant and trials using L-Carnitine supplementation type.

Conclusions: These results showed that L-Carnitine supplementation can reduce fatigue and improve performance of aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adeva‐Andany, M. M., Calvo‐Castro, I., Fernández‐Fernández, C., Donapetry‐García, C., & Pedre‐Piñeiro, A. M. (2017). Significance of l‐carnitine for human health. IUBMB life, 69(8), 578-594.

Arazi, H., & Mehrtash, M. (2017). Effect of acute l-carnitine supplementation on blood lactate, glucose, aerobic and anaerobic performance in elite male artistic gymnasts. Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences, 1(104).

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P., & Rothstein, H. R. (2011). Introduction to meta-analysis. John Wiley & Sons.

Broad, E. M., Maughan, R. J., & Galloway, S. D. (2005). Effects of four weeks L-carnitine L-tartrate ingestion on substrate utilization during prolonged exercise. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 15(6), 665-679.

Colombani, P., Wenk, C., Kunz, I., Krähenbühl, S., Kuhnt, M., Arnold, M., Frey-Rindova, P., Frey, W., & Langhans, W. (1996). Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on physical performance and energy metabolism of endurance-trained athletes: a double-blind crossover field study. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 73(5), 434-439.

Fathizadeh, H., Milajerdi, A., Reiner, Ž., Kolahdooz, F., Chamani, M., Amirani, E., & Asemi, Z. (2019). The Effects of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Serum Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Current pharmaceutical design, 25(30), 3266-3281.

Fedorov, S. (2002). GetData Graph Digitizer version 2.24. Available at www. getdata-graph-digitizer. com, 541, 542.

Fielding, R., Riede, L., Lugo, J. P., & Bellamine, A. (2018). L-carnitine supplementation in recovery after exercise. Nutrients, 10(3), 349.

Ghoreyshi, S. M., Omri, B., Chalghoumi, R., Bouyeh, M., Seidavi, A., Dadashbeiki, M., Lucarini, M., Durazzo, A., van den Hoven, R., & Santini, A. (2019). Effects of dietary supplementation of l-carnitine and excess lysine-methionine on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and immunity markers of broiler chicken. Animals, 9(6), 362.

Giudetti, A. M., Stanca, E., Siculella, L., Gnoni, G. V., & Damiano, F. (2016). Nutritional and hormonal regulation of citrate and carnitine/acylcarnitine transporters: Two mitochondrial carriers involved in fatty acid metabolism. International journal of molecular sciences, 17(6), 817.

Higgins, J. P., Altman, D. G., Gøtzsche, P. C., Jüni, P., Moher, D., Oxman, A. D., Savović, J., Schulz, K. F., Weeks, L., & Sterne, J. A. (2011). The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. Bmj, 343, d5928.

Ho, J.-Y., Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Fragala, M. S., Thomas, G. A., Dunn-Lewis, C., Coday, M., Häkkinen, K., & Maresh, C. M. (2010). l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Metabolism, 59(8), 1190-1199.

Hormoznejad, R., Javid, A. Z., & Mansoori, A. (2019). Effect of BCAA supplementation on central fatigue, energy metabolism substrate and muscle damage to the exercise: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Sport Sciences for Health, 1-15.

Hsu, M.-C., Chien, K.-Y., Hsu, C.-C., Chung, C.-J., Chan, K.-H., & Su, B. (2011). Effects of BCAA, arginine and carbohydrate combined drink on post-exercise biochemical response and psychological condition. Chin J Physiol, 54(2), 71-78.

Jakkamsetti, V., Marin-Valencia, I., Ma, Q., & Pascual, J. M. (2020). Pyruvate dehydrogenase, pyruvate carboxylase, Krebs cycle, and mitochondrial transport disorders. In Rosenberg's Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurological and Psychiatric Disease (pp. 427-436). Elsevier.

Kashef, M., & Saei, M. A. (2017). Acute Effect of L-Carnitine Supplements on Lactate, Glucose, Saturated Oxygen and VO2max Variations in Young Males. International Journal of Basic Science in Medicine, 2(1), 46-51.

Kim, D.-H., Kim, S.-H., Jeong, W.-S., & Lee, H.-Y. (2013). Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances. Journal of exercise nutrition & biochemistry, 17(4), 169.

Kong, Z., Sun, S., Liu, M., & Shi, Q. (2016). Short-term high-intensity interval training on body composition and blood glucose in overweight and obese young women. Journal of diabetes research, 2016.

Koo, G. H., Woo, J., Kang, S., & Shin, K. O. (2014). Effects of supplementation with BCAA and L-glutamine on blood fatigue factors and cytokines in juvenile athletes submitted to maximal intensity rowing performance. Journal of physical therapy science, 26(8), 1241-1246.

Koozehchian, M. S., Daneshfar, A., Fallah, E., Agha-Alinejad, H., Samadi, M., & Kaviani, M. (2018). Effects of nine weeks L-Carnitine supplementation on exercise performance, anaerobic power, and exercise-induced oxidative stress in resistance-trained males. Journal of exercise nutrition & biochemistry, 22(4), 7.

Kraemer, W. J., Spiering, B. A., Volek, J. S., Ratamess, N. A., Sharman, M. J., Rubin, M. R., French, D. N., Silvestre, R., Hatfield, D. L., & Van Heest, J. L. (2006). Androgenic responses to resistance exercise: effects of feeding and L-carnitine. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(7), 1288-1296.

Li, L. Y., Limbu, S. M., Ma, Q., Chen, L. Q., Zhang, M. L., & Du, Z. Y. (2019). The metabolic regulation of dietary L‐carnitine in aquaculture nutrition: present status and future research strategies. Reviews in Aquaculture, 11(4), 1228-1257.

Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P., Clarke, M., Devereaux, P. J., Kleijnen, J., & Moher, D. (2009a). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Annals of internal medicine, 151(4), W-65-W-94.

Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P., Clarke, M., Devereaux, P. J., Kleijnen, J., & Moher, D. (2009b). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS medicine, 6(7), e1000100.

Lundsgaard, A.-M., Fritzen, A. M., & Kiens, B. (2018). Molecular regulation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle during aerobic exercise. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 29(1), 18-30.

Morton, R. W., Oikawa, S. Y., Wavell, C. G., Mazara, N., McGlory, C., Quadrilatero, J., Baechler, B. L., Baker, S. K., & Phillips, S. M. (2016). Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. Journal of applied physiology, 121(1), 129-138.

Oyono-Enguelle, S., Freund, H., Ott, C., Gartner, M., Heitz, A., Marbach, J., Maccari, F., Frey, A., Bigot, H., & Bach, A. (1988). Prolonged submaximal exercise and L-carnitine in humans. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 58(1-2), 53-61.

Pandareesh, M., & Anand, T. (2013). Ergogenic effect of dietary L-carnitine and fat supplementation against exercise induced physical fatigue in Wistar rats. Journal of physiology and biochemistry, 69(4), 799-809.

Rahimi, R., Faraji, H., Sheikholeslami-Vatani, D., & Qaderi, M. (2010). Creatine supplementation alters the hormonal response to resistance exercise. Kinesiology, 42(1), 28-35.

Ransone, J. W., & Lefavi, R. G. (1997). The effects of dietary L-Carnitine on anaerobic exercise lactate in elite male athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 11(1), 4-7.

Rubin, M. R., Volek, J. S., Gomez, A. L., Ratamess, N. A., French, D. N., Sharman, M. J., & Kraemer, W. J. (2001). Safety measures of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation in healthy men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 15(4), 486-490.

Shimomura, Y., Inaguma, A., Watanabe, S., Yamamoto, Y., Muramatsu, Y., Bajotto, G., Sato, J., Shimomura, N., Kobayashi, H., & Mawatari, K. (2010). Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 20(3), 236-244.

Siliprandi, N., Di Lisa, F., Pieralisi, G., Ripari, P., Maccari, F., Menabo, R., Giamberardino, M. A., & Vecchiat, L. (1990). Metabolic changes induced by maximal exercise in human subjects following L-carnitine administration. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 1034(1), 17-21.

Spiering, B. A., Kraemer, W. J., Vingren, J. L., & Hatfield, D. L. (2007). Responses of criterion variables to different supplemental doses of L-carnitine L-tartrate. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(1), 259.

Stack, M. E. (2017). The Effects of Chronic L-carnitine and Carbohydrate Supplementation on Body Composition and Athletic Performance in Female Endurance Athletes.

Stephens, F. B. (2018). Does skeletal muscle carnitine availability influence fuel selection during exercise? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 77(1), 11-19.

Strüder, H., Hollmann, W., Platen, P., Donike, M., Gotzmann, A., & Weber, K. (1998). Influence of paroxetine, branched-chain amino acids and tyrosine on neuroendocrine system responses and fatigue in humans. Hormone and metabolic research, 30(04), 188-194.

Thibodeau, A., Geng, X., Previch, L. E., & Ding, Y. (2016). Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Brain circulation, 2(2), 61.

Tobias, A. (1999). Assessing the influence of a single study in the meta-anyalysis estimate. Stata Technical Bulletin, 8(47).

Trappe, S., Costill, D., Goodpaster, B., Vukovich, M., & Fink, W. (1994). The effects of L-carnitine supplementation on performance during interval swimming. International journal of sports medicine, 15(04), 181-185.

Vigh-Larsen, J. F., Ermidis, G., Rago, V., Randers, M. B., Fransson, D., Nielsen, J. L., Gliemann, L., Piil, J. F., Morris, N. B., & De Paoli, F. V. (2020). Muscle metabolism and fatigue during simulated ice hockey match-play in elite players. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 52(10), 2162-2171.

Vukovich, M. D., Costill, D. L., & Fink, W. J. (1994). Carnitine supplementation: effect on muscle carnitine and glycogen content during exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 26(9), 1122-1129.

Wang, Z.-Y., Liu, Y.-Y., Liu, G.-H., Lu, H.-B., & Mao, C.-Y. (2018). l-Carnitine and heart disease. Life sciences, 194, 88-97.

Watson, P., Shirreffs, S. M., & Maughan, R. J. (2004). The effect of acute branched-chain amino acid supplementation on prolonged exercise capacity in a warm environment. European journal of applied physiology, 93(3), 306-314.

Yang, W.-H., Park, H., Grau, M., & Heine, O. (2020). Decreased Blood Glucose and Lactate: Is a Useful Indicator of Recovery Ability in Athletes? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(15), 5470.

Young, A., Oldford, C., & Mailloux, R. J. (2020). Lactate dehydrogenase supports lactate oxidation in mitochondria isolated from different mouse tissues. Redox Biology, 28, 101339.

ZhanQi, W. (2011). Methods of weight control for rhythmic gymnastic athletes adopt L-carnitine. Proceedings 2011 International Conference on Human Health and Biomedical Engineering,

Zhou, M., Snedecor, B. R., Ng, C. K. D., & Shen, A. (2016). Decreasing lactate level and increasing polypeptide production by downregulating the expression of lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. In: Google Patents.

Issue

Section

Reviews