The Protective Effect of Pistacia vera L. (Pistachio) Against to Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-Induced Damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Main Article Content

Zehra GOKCE

Keywords

S.cerevisiae, Pistacia vera, CCl4, Oxidative damage, Antioxidant systems, Flavonoid

Abstract

Summary. In this study, phytochemical ingredients of Pistacia vera cultivated in Kilis province, and it was investigated to demonstrate anti-oxidant effects and on some biochemical parameters and of this content on CCl4-induced cell damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


Pistacia vera fruits were extracted and then subjected to flavonoid analysis by HPLC device. S. cerevisiae (bread yeast) was used as a cell culture model. For the development and proliferation of S. cerevisiae FMC16 in the study, YEDP (1 g yeast extract for 100 ml, 2 g bactopeptone, 2 g glucose) medium was used.


In this study, six groups were composed. i: Control group, ii: CCl4 (100 µl) group, iii: Pistacia vera 200 µl (PV2) group, iv: Pistacia vera 400 µl (PV4) group, v: PV2+CCl4 group and vi: PV4+CCl4 group. After sterilization, PV and CCl4 were inserted to S. cerevisiae cultures and the cultures were developed at 60°C for 72 hour (overnight). Antioxidant enzymes activities such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) were determined in S. cerevisiae cell by spectrophotometer.  Glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated in S. cerevisiae cell by HPLC device.


In this study, it is determined that pistachio is rich in flavonoid. Other results indicated that CCl4 application significantly increased MDA and GSSG contents the most significantly (p<0.001). However, the GSH level decreased the more significantly (p<0.01). In the groups given PV extract against CCl4, it was found that the GSH, GSSG levels increased and MDA level reduced in S. cerevisiae cell (p<0.01, p<0.001). According to the results in comparison to control group, the activity of SOD GST, GSH, CAT and GSH-Px were decreased significantly with CCl4 treatment (p<0.05; p<0.01). In our data in comparison to control group, the activity of SOD, GST, GSH, CAT and GSH-Px were increased significantly in PV2+CCl4 and PV4+CCl4 groups with treatment PV extract (p<0.01;p<0.001).


Our study shows that PV is very rich in flavonoids.  As a result, PV extract has a role in promoting cell growth as well as reducing oxidative damage in S. cerevisiae culture. In particular, the results of the antioxidant defense system will be a source for similar studies on other living models.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 3 |

References

1.Taghizadeh SF, Rezaee R, Davarynejad G, Karimi G, Nemati SH, Asili J. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of Pistacia vera var. Sarakhs hull and kernel extracts: the influence of different solvents. J Food Meas Charact. 2018;1–7.

2.Moazzzam Jazi M, Seyedi SM, Ebrahimie E, Ebrahimi M, De Moro, G, Botanga C. A genome-wide transcriptome map of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) provides novel insights into salinity-related genes and marker discovery. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:627.

3.Aliakbarkhani ST, Farajpour M, Asadian AH, Aalifar M, Ahmadi S, Akbari M. Variation of nutrients and antioxidant activity in seed and exocarp layer of some Persian pistachio genotypes. Ann Agric Sci. 2017;62:39–44.

4.Mohammadi-Moghaddam T, Razavi SMA, Taghizadeh M, Pradhan B, Sazgarnia A, Shaker-Ardekani A. Hyperspectral imaging as an effective tool for prediction the moisture content and textural characteristics of roasted pistachio kernels. J Food Meas Charact. 2018;12(3):1493–1502.
5.Siahmoshteh F, Siciliano I, Banani H, Hamidi-Esfahani ZH, Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M, Gullino ML, et al. 2017. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the control of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production on pistachio. Int J Food Microbiol. 2017;254: 47–53.

6.FAO, 2015. The State of Food and Agriculture, Available from: Pistachio production http://faostat.fao.org/. 14 April 2019.

7.Tous J, Ferguson L. Mediterranean Fruits. In: Progress in new crops, Edited by J. Janick, ASHS. Press, Arlington, VA, 1996; 416-430.

8.Yahia EM. Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits. Mangosteen to white sapote, In: Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), Edited by M. Kashaninejad, Oxford Cambrige Philadelphia New Delhi 2011;4:218-246.
9.Bulló M, Juanola-Falgarona MJ, Hernández-Alonso P, Salas-Salvadó J. Nutrition attributes and health effects of pistachio nuts. Br J Nutr. 2015;113:79–93.
10.Reboredo-Rodríguez P, González-Barreiro C, Cancho-Grande B, Simal-Gándara J, Giampieri F, et al. Effect of pistachio kernel extracts in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: Inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of ROS production, modulation of glycolysis and of mitochondrial respiration. J Funct Foods. 2018; 45 155–16.

11.Gokce Z. Protective effects of goldenberyy fruit and flaxseed extracts against to some chemicals of industrial and toxic features. Firat University Institute of Science and PhD Thesis (Printed) 2013.
12.Hozzein WN, Al-Khalaf AA, Mohany M, Al-Rejaie SS, Ali DMI, Amin AA. The potential protective effect of two actinomycete extracts against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019; 26(4) : 3834-3847.
13.Ryter SW, Kim HP, Hoetzel AJ, Park W, Nakahira K, Wang X, Choi AM. Mechanisms of cell death in oxidative stress, Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007; 9(1):49–89.

14.Ribeiro IC, Verı´ssimo I, Moniz L, Cardoso H, Sousa MJ, Soares, AMVM, Lea˜o C. yeasts as a model for assessing the toxicity of the fungicides penconazol, cymoxanil and dichlofluanid. Chemosphere. 2000; 41: 1637-1642.
15.Aslan A. The effects of different essential fruit juice and their combination on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell growth. Prog in Nutr. 2015a;17:36-40.
16.Aslan A, Can MI. Protein expression product alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prog in Nutr. 2017a;19:81-85.
17.Braconi D, Bernardini G, Santucci A. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model in ecotoxicological studies: A Post-Genomics Perspective. J Proteomics. 2016; 30(137):19-34.
18.Zu Y, Li C, Fu Y, Zhao C. Simultaneous determination of catechin, rutin, quercetin kaempferol and isorhamnetin in the extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves by RP-HPLC with DAD. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;41(3):714–719.
19.Dilsiz N, Çelik S, Yılmaz Ö, Dıgrak M. The effects of selenium, vitamin e and their combination on the composition of fatty acids and proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Biochem Funct. 1997;15:265-269.
20.Karatas F, Karatepe M, Baysar, A. Determination of free malondialdehyde in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem. 2002;311(19):76-79.
21.Karatepe M. Simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and free malondialdehyde in human serum by HPLC/UV. LC-GC North Americana. 2004;22:362-365.
22.Klejdus B, Zehnalek J, Adam V, Petrek J, Kizek R, Vacek J, Trnkova L, Rozik R, Havel L, Kuban V. Sub-picomole high-performance liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of glutathione in the maize (Zea mays L.) kernels exposed to cadmium. Analitica Chimica Acta. 2004;520(1-2):117-124.
23.Yılmaz O, Keser S, Tuzcu M, Guvenc M, Cetintas B, Irtegun S, Tastan H, Sahin K. A practical HPLC method to measure reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione concentrations in animal tissues. J Anim Vet Adv. 2009;8(2):343-347.
24.Panchenko LF, Brusov OS, Gerasimov AM, Loktaeva TD. Intramitochondrial localization and release of rat liver superoxide dismutase. Febs Letters. 1975;55:84–87.
25.Beers RF, Sizer IW. Spectrophotometric method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol Chem. 1952; 195: 133–140.

26.Bell JG, Cowey CB, Adron JW, Shanks AM. Some effects of vitamin E and selenium deprivation on tissue enzyme levels and indices of tissue peroxidation in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Nutr. 1985;53:149–157.
27.Carlberg I, Mannervik B. Glutathione reductase. Methods Enyzmol. 1985;113:484-490.
28.Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB. Glutathione-S-Transferases: The first enzymatic steo in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem. 1974; 249: 7130-7139.

29.Tokuşoğlu O. Yeşil Altın: Antepfıstığı teknolojisi, kimyası ve kalite kontrolü (Kitap). 2007:86,694-701.

30.Acena L, Vera L, Guasch J, Busto O, Mestres M. Comparative study of two extraction techniques to obtain representative aroma extracts for being analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry Application to roasted pistachio aroma. J. Chromatogr. 2010;1217(49):7781–7787.

31.Moayedi A, Rezaei K, Moini S, Keshavarz B. Chemical compositions of oils from several wild almond species. J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc 2011;88(4):503-508.

32.Jeong JB, Park JH, Lee HK, Ju SY, Hong SC, Lee JR, et al. Protective effect of the extracts from Cnidium officinale against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide via antioxidant effect. Food Chem Toxıcol. 2009;47:525-529.

33.Aslan A, Baspinar S, Yilmaz O. Is Pomegranate juice has a vital role for protective effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth? Prog Nutr. 2014;16(3):212-217.

34.Tsatsakis A, Kouretas D, Tzatzarakis M, Stivaktakis P, Tsarouhas K, Golokhvast K, et al. Simulating real-life exposures to uncover possible risks to human health: a proposed consensus for a novel methodological approach. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 2017;36:554–564.

35.Aslan A, Can MI. The effect of orange juice against to H2O2 stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prog Nutr. 2015b; 17(3): 250-254.

36.Aslan A, Gok O, Erman O. The protective effect of kiwi fruit extract against to chromium effect on protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prog Nutr. 2017b;19: 472-478.

37.El-haskoury R, Al-Waili N, Kamoun Z, Makni M, Al-Waili H, Lyoussia B. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of Carob honey in CCl4-induced kidney and liver injury. Arch Med Res. 2018;49:306-13.
38.Li MH, Feng X, Deng Ba DJ, Chen C, Ruan LY, Xing YX et al. Hepatoprotection of Herpetospermum caudigerum Wall. against CCl4-induced liver fibrosis on rats. J Ethnopharm. 2019;229:1–14.
39.Garcia JJ, Reiter RJ, Guerrero JM, Escames G, Yu BP, Oh CS. Melatonin prevents changes in microsomal membrane fluidity during induced lipid peroxidation. FEBS Letters. 1997;408:297-300.
40.Kireçci OA. Effect of heavy metals (manganese, magnesium, cadmium, and ıron) added saccharomyces cerevisiae culture medium on some biochemical parameters KSU J Nat Sci. 2017;20(3):175-184.
41.Aslan A. 2018. Cell culture developing and the imaging of total protein product changing with SDS-PAGE in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Prog Nutr. 2018;20(1):128-132.
42.Hamzaha RU, Jigama AA, Makuna HA, Egwima EC, Muhammada HL, Busaria MB et al. Effect of partially purified sub-fractions of Pterocarpus mildbraedii extract on carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. Integr Med Res. 2018;7:149–158.
43.Rabiei S, Rezaie M, Abasian Z, Khezri M, Nikoo M, Rafieian-kopaei M, Anjomshoaa M. The protective effect of Liza klunzingeri protein hydrolysate on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2019;22(10):1203-1210.
44.Aydın S, Gokce Z, Yılmaz O. The effects of Juglans regia L. (walnut) extract on certain biochemical paramaters and in the prevention of tissue damage in brain, kidney, and liver in CCl4 applied Wistar rats. Turkish J. Biochem. 2015;40(3):241–250.
45.Quinn, D.M.,1987. Structure of Enzymes, Reaction Dynamics and Virtual Transition States, Chem. Rev., 87, 955-79.
46.Penninckx M. A short review on the role of glutathione in the response of yeasts to nutritional, environmental, and oxidative stresses. Enzyme Mıcrob Tech. 2000;26;737-742.
47.Aydın S. Antioxidant capacities of mulberry, cranberry, cherry and walnut fruits that are grown in Elazıg region, and the examination of their effects on oxidative stress in some experimental models. Firat University Institute of Science and PhD Thesis (Printed) 2012.
48.Zhang JF, Liub H, Sun YY, Wang XR, Wu JC, Xue, YQ Responses of the antioxidant defenses of the Goldfish Carassius auratus, exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenol. Environ Toxicol Pharm 2005;19: 185–190.

49.Izawa S, Inoue Y, Kimura A. Oxidative stres response in yeast: effect of glutathione on adaption to hydrogen peroxide stres in Saccharomyces cerevisia. FEBS J Letters, 1995;368:73-76.
50. Lim TK. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 2, Fruits, 2012.

51.Naz, K, Khan MR, Shah NA, Sattar S, Noureen F, Awan, ML. Pistacia chinensis: A potent ameliorator of CCl4 induced lung and thyroid toxicity in rat model. Biomed Res Int. 2014;1:1-13.

DB Error: Unknown column 'Array' in 'where clause'