Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes

Main Article Content

Özlem Çetiner
Süleyman Nahit Şendur
Tuba Yalçın
Miyase Bayraktar
Neslişah Rakıcıoğlu


antioxidants, diet, DNA damage, type 2 diabetes, oxidative stress




Reactive oxygen species can disrupt normal cellular functions by damaging DNA, protein, and lipid structures of the cell. Some antioxidant molecules may protect the body against reactive oxygen species. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of antioxidants and oxidative DNA damage in diabetic patients.

Material and Methods

A total of 85 individuals were included in the study, of which 30 were newly diagnosed with type-2 diabetes, 30 were formerly diagnosed with type-2 diabetes, and 25 were healthy individuals. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were recorded for 3 consecutive days. Dietary total antioxidant capacity and dietary oxidative balance scores were calculated according to these records. Spot urine samples were collected and analyzed for 8-hydroxy-2ʹ deoxyguanosine/creatinine.


Dietary total antioxidant capacity, estimated via different methods, was higher in the controls than that in patients with type-2 diabetes (p<0.05). The urinary 8-hydroxy-2ʹ-deoxyguanosine/creatinine ratio, a reliable predictor of oxidative DNA damage, was also higher in non-diabetic patients (p<0.05). The urinary 8-hydroxy-2ʹ-deoxyguanosine/creatinine ratio was not related to dietary antioxidant intake (p>0.05).


Urinary 8-hydroxy-2ʹ-deoxyguanosine/creatinine concentration may not always reflect the current oxidative status of the body.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 22 |


1. Rani V, Deep G, Singh RK, Palle K, Yadav UCS. Oxidative stress and metabolic disorders: Pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. Life Sci. 2016;148:183–93.
2. Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Yamada Y, Nakajima Y, et al. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2004;114(12):1752–61.
3. Fiorentino TV, Prioletta A, Zuo P, Folli F. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and its role in diabetes mellitus related cardiovascular diseases. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(32):5695–703.
4. Yan L-J. Pathogenesis of chronic hyperglycemia: from reductive stress to oxidative stress. J Diabetes Res. 2014;2014:137919.
5. Styskal J, Van Remmen H, Richardson A, Salmon AB. Oxidative stress and diabetes: what can we learn about insulin resistance from antioxidant mutant mouse models? Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Jan 1;52(1):46–58.
6. Yang H, Jin X, Kei Lam CW, Yan SK. Oxidative stress and diabetes mellitus. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49(11):1773–82.
7. Wu LL, Chiou C-C, Chang P-Y, Wu JT. Urinary 8-OHdG: a marker of oxidative stress to DNA and a risk factor for cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetics. Clin Chim Acta. 2004;339:1–9.
8. Wedick NM, Pan A, Cassidy A, Rimm EB, Sampson L, Rosner B, et al. Dietary flavonoid intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr 1;95(4):925–33.
9. Puchau B, Zulet MÁ, de Echávarri AG, Hermsdorff HHM, Martínez JA. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity: A Novel Indicator of Diet Quality in Healthy Young Adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28(6):648–56.
10. Bahadoran Z, Golzarand M, Mirmiran P, Shiva N, Azizi F. Dietary total antioxidant capacity and the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and its components after a 3-year follow-up in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012;9(1):70.
11. Mancini FR, Affret A, Dow C, Balkau B, Bonnet F, Boutron-Ruault M-C, et al. Dietary antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes in the large prospective E3N-EPIC cohort. Diabetologia. 2018;61(2):308–16.
12. Carlsen, M.H., Harvolsen, B.L. Holte, K. et la. The total antioxidant content of Moore Ethan 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs, Ana supplements Led worldwide. Nutr J. 2010;1–11.
13. Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Salvatore S, Del Rio D, Bianchi M, Brighenti F. Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2006;50(11):1030–8.
14. Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Colombi B, Del Rio D, Salvatore S, Bianchi M, et al. Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutr. 2003;133(9):2812–9.
15. Haytowitz D, Bhagwat S. USDA Database for the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2. US Dep Agric. 2010;10–48.
16. Agalliu I, Kirsh VA, Kreiger N, Soskolne CL, Rohan TE. Oxidative balance score and risk of prostate cancer: Results from a case-cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011;35(4):353–61.
17. Psaltopoulou T, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysochoou C, Detopoulou P, Skoumas J, et al. Dietary antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with diabetes biomarkers: The ATTICA study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21(8):561–7.
18. Verma M, Paneri S, Badi P, Raman PG. Effect of increasing duration of diabetes mellitus type 2 on glycated hemoglobin and insulin sensitivity. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2006;21(1):142–6.
19. Dong QY, Cui Y, Chen L, Song J, Sun L. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels in diabetic retinopathy patients. Eur J Ophthalmol.2008;18(1):94–8.
20. Nishikawa T, Sasahara T, Kiritoshi S, Sonoda K, Senokuchi T, Matsuo T, et al. Evaluation of Urinary 8-Hydroxydeoxy-Guanosine as a Novel Biomarker of Macrovascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes. 2003;26(5): 1507-1512.
21. Choi SW, Ho CK. Antioxidant properties of drugs used in Type 2 diabetes management: could they contribute to, confound or conceal effects of antioxidant therapy? Redox Rep. 2018;23(1):1–24.
22. Blasiak J, Arabski M, Krupa R, Wozniak K, Zadrozny M, Kasznicki J, et al. DNA damage and repair in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mutat Res Mol Mech Mutagen. 2004;554(1–2):297–304.
23. Szaleczky E, Prechl J, Fehér J, Somogyi A. Alterations in enzymatic antioxidant defence in diabetes mellitus − a rational approach. Postgrad Med J. 1999 Jan; 75(879): 13–17
24. Switzeny OJ, Müllner E, Wagner K-H, Brath H, Aumüller E, Haslberger AG. Vitamin and antioxidant rich diet increases MLH1 promoter DNA methylation in DMT2 subjects. Clin Epigenetics. 2012;4(1):19.
25. Vodicka P, Stetina R, Polakova V, Tulupova E, Naccarati A, Vodickova L, et al. Association of DNA repair polymorphisms with DNA repair functional outcomes in healthy human subjects. Carcinogenesis. 2006;28(3):657–64.
26. Gönül N, Kadioglu E, Kocabaş NA, Özkaya M, Karakaya AE, Karahalil B. The role of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and OGG1 polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: A case-control study in a Turkish population. Gene. 2012;505(1):121–7.
27. Kashino I, Li YS, Kawai K, Nanri A, Miki T, Akter S, et al. Dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and DNA damage in a working population. Nutrition. 2018;47:63–8.
28. Lettieri-Barbato D, Tomei F, Sancini A, Morabito G, Serafini M. Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis Effect of plant foods and beverages on plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity in human subjects: a meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2013 May;109(9):1544-56
29. Hollman PCH, Cassidy A, Comte B, Heinonen M, Richelle M, Richling E, et al. The Biological Relevance of Direct Antioxidant Effects of Polyphenols for Cardiovascular Health in Humans Is Not Established. J Nutr. 2011 May 1;141(5):989S-1009S.
30. Prior RL, Hoang H, Gu L, Wu X, Bacchiocca M, Howard L, et al. Assays for Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC FL )) of Plasma and Other Biological and Food Samples. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(11):3273–9.