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Nutritive value, pharmacology, Xanthium
Xanthium sibiricum is an annual herb of Family Asteraceae and Xanthium L. Xanthium sibiricum has high nutritive values and contains abundant proteins, fats, sugars, calcium, iron. Folklore medicine have revealed that Xanthium sibiricum is effective for the treatment of infection, inflammation, cancer and pain, etc. Xanthium sibiricum can be cooked as dishes, and food therapy by Xanthium sibiricum can be effective for mammitis and tinea capitis. The chemical constituents of Xanthium sibiricum are mainly sesquiterpene lactones, volatile oils, phenolic acids and water-soluble glycosides. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of plant, fruit, Siberian cocklebur borers (an insect larva, like a silkworm, parasitized in the stem of Xanthium Sibiricum Patr. et Widd [X. strum-atium non L.]), flower and root of Xanthium sibiricum have been investigated. Xanthium sibiricum fruits have the most extensive clinical applications, for the blood sugar lowering, anti-allergy, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-tumor effects. Cardiovascular pharmacology of Xanthium sibiricum represent anti-hyertensive, anti-coagulation and an-oxidant properties. However, toxic components of Xanthium sibiricum including atractyloside, carboxyl atractyloside and 4'-desulfonated atractyloside should be always bored in mind.