Main Article Content
Older Adults, Malnutrition, Depression, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)
Introduction: This study was planned to investigate the relationship between the nutritional status and the development of depression of the older adult population living in their own settings in Eskisehir, Turkey.
Materials and Methods: This study was carried out with 129 individuals aged 65 and over (40.3% male, 59.7% female) who visited a private health institution in Eskisehir. This single-centre cross-sectional study was conducted between October 1-December 1, 2021. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were applied to the older adults with the face-to-face interview technique after their anthropometric and biochemical measurements were taken.
Results: The mean age of the participants was found 71.15±5.95 years. Among the participants, 2.3% of them were determined to have malnutrition, 34.2% were at malnutrition risk, and 63.5% had a normal nutritional status. As per the GDS results, 45.7% of the older adults participating in the study were found to have depression.
Conclusion: Determining the nutritional status and providing solution options is an important parameter in terms of reducing the risk of disease in individuals aged 65 and over in societies. The results of our study showed that there is a linear relationship between malnutrition developing due to inadequate nutrition and the development of depression and that they might trigger each other. MNA and GDS should be used as routine screening tools for populations aged 65 and over in all societies, and emergency action plans should be implemented to improve the living comfort of older adults in line with the results.
2. Ageing and health https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health (accessed April 2022).
3. Mazya AL, Garvin P, Ekdahl AW. Outpatient comprehensive geriatric assessment: effects on frailty and mortality in old people with multimorbidity and high health care utilization. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2019;31(4):519-525. doi: 10.1007/s40520-018-1004-z.
4. Imaoka M, Nakao H, Nakamura M, et al. Effect of Multicomponent Exercise and Nutrition Support on the Cognitive Function of Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Clin Interv Aging. 2019;11(14):2145-2153. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S229034.
5. Jeste DV, Glorioso D, Lee EE, et al. Study of Independent Living Residents of a Continuing Care Senior Housing Community: Sociodemographic and Clinical Associations of Cognitive, Physical, and Mental Health. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2019;27(9): 895-907.
6. Kiesswetter E, Pohlhausen S, Uhlig K et al. Malnutrition is related to functional impairment in older adults receiving home care. J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(4):345-50.
7. Acar Tek N and Aggunduz D. Yaslıların demografik durumu ve yaşlılıkla ilişkili kavramlar. Geriatride Beslenme. p.14-26 [Acar Tek N and Aksoydanlar E, editors]. Ankara: Matsa Basımevi, 2021.
8. TUIK, İstatistiklerle Yaşlılar, 2021. https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Istatistiklerle-Yaslilar-2021-45636 (accessed April 2022)
9. Schenker Y, Park SY, Jeong K, et al. Associations between polypharmacy, symptom burden, and quality of life in patients with advanced, life-limiting illness. J Gen Intern Med. 2019;34(4):559-566. doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-04837-7.
10. Kivipelto M, Solomon A, Ahtiluoto S, et al. The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER): study design and progress. Alzheimers Dement. 2013;9(6):657-65. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2012.09.012.
11. Karlsson A, Lindelöf N, Olofsson B, et al. effects of geriatric interdisciplinary home rehabilitation on independence in activities of daily living in older people with hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2020;101(4):571-578.
12. Lahmann NA, Tannen A, Suhr R. Underweight and malnutrition in home care: a multicenter study. Clin. Nutr. 2016;35:1140-1146. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.09.008.
13. Fávaro-Moreira NC, Krausch-Hofmann S, Matthys C, et al. Risk factors for malnutrition in older adults: a systematic review of the literature based on longitudinal data. Adv. Nutr. 2016;7:507-522. doi: 10.3945/an.115.011254.
14. Ongan D. Yaslıda malnutrisyon ve kırılganlık. Geriatride Beslenme. pp. 80-100 [Acar Tek N and Aksoydanlar E, editors]. Ankara: Matsa Basımevi, 2021.
15. Zheng H, Duan G, Shen S, et al. association of nutritional risk index with postoperative pain outcomes in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgeries: a retrospective cohort study. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021;9(8):535627. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.535627.
16. Alam MR, Karmokar S, Reza S, et al. Geriatric malnutrition and depression: evidence from elderly home care population in Bangladesh. Prev Med Rep. 2021;7(23):101478.
17. Ghimire S, Baral BK, Pokhrel BR, et al. Depression, malnutrition, and health-related quality of life among Nepali older patients. BMC Geriatr. 2018;24:18(1), 191.
18. Mantzorou M, Vadikolias K, Pavlidou E, et al. Nutritional status is associated with the degree of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in a Greek elderly population. Nutr Neurosci. 2020;23(3),:201-209. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2018.1486940.
19. Kris-Etherton PM, Petersen KS, Hibbeln JR, et al. Nutrition and behavioral health disorders: depression and anxiety. Nutr Rev. 2021;79(3):247-260. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuaa025.
20. Di Renzo L, Gualtieri P, Romano L, et al. role of personalized nutrition in chronic-degenerative diseases. Nutrients. 2019;11(8):1707. doi: 10.3390/nu11081707.
21. Sarıkaya D. Geriatrik Hastalarda Mini Nutrisyonel Değerlendirme (Mna) Testinin Uzun Ve Kısa (Mna-Sf) Formunun Gecerlilik Çalısması. PhD Thesis, University of Hacettepe, 2013.
22. Guigoz Y. The mini nutritional assessment (mna) review of the literature-what does it tell us? J Nutr Health Aging. 2006;10(6):466-485. PMID: 17183419.
23. Ertan T, Eker E, Şar V. Geriatrik depresyon olçeginin Turk yaslı nüfusunda gecerlik ve guvenirligi. Noropsikiyatri Arsivi 1997;34(1):62-71.
24. Jia J, Zhao T, Liu Z, et al. Association between healthy lifestyle and memory decline in older adults: 10 year, population based, prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2023;25:380:e072691.
25. Li F, Yan Y, Zheng L, et al. Frailty and its combined effects with lifestyle factors on cognitive function: a cross-sectional study. BMC Geriatr. 2023;6;23(1):79. doi:10.1186/s12877-023-03761-0.
26. Chung CP, Ihara M, Hilal S, et al. Targeting cerebral small vessel disease to promote healthy aging: preserving physical and cognitive functions in the elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2023 Jul;110:104982. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2023.104982.
27. Smith TR, Cawood AL, Walters, ER et al. ready-made oral nutritional supplements improve nutritional outcomes and reduce health care use-a randomised trial in older malnourished people in primary care. Nutrients. 2020;12(2), 517. doi: 10.3390/nu12020517.
28. Visvanathan R, Macintosh C, Callary M, et al. The nutritional status of 250 older Australian recipients of domiciliary care services and its association with outcomes at 12 months. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(7):1007-1011. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2389.2003.51317.x.
29. Thouhidur Rahman KM, Khalequzzaman MD, Khan FA, et al. Factors associated with the nutritional status of the older population in a selected area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. BMC Geriatrics. 2021;21(1):161. doi: 10.1186/s12877-021-02068-2.
30. Sun B, Zhao Y, Lu W, et al. The relationship of malnutrition with cognitive function in the older chinese population: evidence from the chinese longitudinal healthy longevity survey study. Front. Aging Neurosci. 2021;13: 766159. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.766159.
31. Velázquez-Alva MC, Irigoyen-Camacho ME, Cabrer-Rosales MF, et al. Prevalence of malnutrition and depression in older adults living in nursing homes in mexico city. Nutrients.2020;12(8):2429. doi: 10.3390/nu12082429.
32. Smoliner C, Norman K, Wagner KH, et al. Malnutrition and depression in the institutionalised elderly. Br. J. Nutr. 2009;102(11):1663-1667. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509990900.
33. Lozada TA, Carrasco PG, Codina AF. Impact on the risk of malnutrition and depression of a clinical trial with nutritional educational intervention in non-institutionalized elderly subjects receiving a telecare service in Terrassa (Spain). Nutr Hosp. 2021;38(2):260-266.
34. Payahoo L, Khaje-Bishak Y, Gargari BP, et al. Assessment of nutritional and depression status in free-living elderly in tabriz, northwest ıran. health promotion perspectives. 2013;3(2):288-293. doi: 10.5681/hpp.2013.033.
35. Karakas N, Bentli N, Fırıncı B, et al. Investigation of the relationship between depression and nutritional status of elderly patients in home care. J Surg Med. 2019;3(12):829-832.
36. Taser S, Kutlu R, Karaoglu N. Effects of nutrition, depression symptoms and demographic characteristics on dementia in the elderly population. Marmara Med J. 2021;34(2):132-139. doi.org/10.5472/marumj.939806
37. Kucukerdonmez O, Navruz Varli S, Koksal E. Comparison of nutritional status in the elderly according to living situations. J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(1):25-30.