Main Article Content
Coronavirus, performance losses, soccer, training cessation
Abstract: Background and aim: Covid-19 pandemic has dramatically affected football, one of the most popular sports in the world, and significantly changed the competitive football sphere. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the suspensions and isolation process applied in leagues due to Covid-19 on the performance levels of amateur football players. Methods: Twenty male amateur football players (19.05±1.3 years) participated in the study as volunteers. Certain physical tests were applied to examine participants' performance levels. The detraining period was 80 days. Pre-testing started in March 2020 when the restrictions first introduced in Turkey as the post-test process was initialized in the first week of June after normalization signals. Results: Results showed that there are statistically significant variances in the parameters of body weight, body mass index, sit-and-reach, hand grip strength, medicine ball throw, 30-m speed, Illinois agility, 30-sec sit-ups, 30-sec push-ups, counter movement jump, peak power, Yo-yo IR-Level 1 and V̇O2max (p<0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that the performance levels of amateur football players deteriorated significantly during the detraining period due to the pandemic.
2. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novelcoronavirus-2019;accessed on 26.11.2020
3. Cheval B, Sivaramakrishnan H, Maltagliati S, Fessler L, Forestier C, Sarrazin P, et al. Relationships between changes in self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviour and health during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in France and Switzerland. J. Sports Sci. 2020; 39(6): 699-704.
4. Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res. 2020;24:91–8.
5. Memish ZA, Steffen R, White P, Dar O, Azhar EI, Sharma A, Zumla A. Mass gatherings medicine: public health issues arising from mass gathering religious and sporting events. Lancet. 2019;393(10185):2073-84.
6. Bisciotti GN, Eirale C, Corsini A, Baudot C, Saillant G, Chalabi H. Return to football training and competition after lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic:medical recommendations. Biol Sport. 2020;37(3):313-9.
7. Parnell D, Widdop P, Bond A, Wilson R. COVID-19, networks and sport. Manag Sport Leis. 2020;1-7.
8. Halabchi F, Ahmadinejad Z, Selk-Ghaffari M. COVID-19 Epidemic: Exercise or not to Exercise; That is the Question!. Asian J Sports Med. 2020;11(1):1-3.
9. Gilat R, Cole BJ. COVID-19, medicine, and sports. Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil. 2020;2(3):1-2.
10. Cardazzi A, Humphreys BR, Ruseski JE, Soebbing B, Watanabe N. Professional sporting events increase seasonal influenza mortality in US cities. SSRN Electronic J. 2020:3628649.
11. Mohr M, Nassis GP, Brito J, Randers MB, Castagna C, Parnell D, Krustrup P. Return to elite football after the COVID-19 lockdown. Manag Sport Leis. 2020;1-9.
12. Eirale C, Bisciotti G, Corsini A, Baudot, C, Saillant G, Chalabi H. Medical recommendations for home-confined footballers’ training during the COVID-19pandemic: from evidence to practical application. Biol Sport. 2020;37(2):203-7.
13. Brito de Souza D, González-García J, López-Del Campo R, Resta R, Martínez Buldú J, Wilk M, et al. Players’ physical performance in LaLiga across the season: insights for competition continuation after COVID-19. Biol Sport. 2021;38(1):3–7.
14. Cohen DD, Restrepo A, Richter C, Harry JR, Franchi MV, Restrepo C, et al. Detraining of specific neuromuscular qualities in elite footballers during COVID-19 quarantine. Sci Med Football. 2020;1-6.
15. Mujika I, Padilla S. Detraining: loss of training-induced physiological and performance adaptations. Part I. Sports Med. 2000;30(2):79-87.
16. Mujika I, Padilla S. Muscular characteristics of detraining in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(8):1297-1303.
17. Plowman SA, Smith DL. Exercise physiology for health fitness and performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2013
18. Letieri RV, Teixeira AM, Furtado GE, Lamboglia CG, Rees JL, Gomes BB. Effect of 16 weeks of resistance exercise and detraining comparing two methods of blood flow restriction in muscle strength of healthy older women: A randomized controlled trial. Exp Gerontol. 2018;114:78-86.
19. Joo CH. The effects of short term detraining and retraining on physical fitness in elite soccer players. PloS One. 2018;13(5): e0196212.
20. Silva JR, Brito J, Akenhead R, Nassis GP. The transition period in soccer: a window of opportunity. Sports Med. 2016;46(3):305-13.
21. Van Roie E, Walker S, Van Driessche S, Baggen R, Coudyzer W, Bautmans I, et al. Training load does not affect detraining's effect on muscle volume, muscle strength and functional capacity among older adults. Exp Gerontol. 2017;98:30-7.
22. Bompa TO, Haff GG. Periodization: Theory and methodology of training (5-th Ed). Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics. 2009
23. Eston R, Reilly T. Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual: tests, procedures and data: volume two: physiology. Routledge. 2013
24. Tsigilis N, Douda H, Tokmakidis SP. Test-retest reliability of the Eurofit test battery administered to university students. Percept Mot Skills. 2002;95(3_suppl):1295-1300.
25. Mackenzie B. Performance evaluation tests. London: Electric World plc. 2005
26. Fess EE. Grip strength. In JS Casanova (ed.) Clinical Assessment Recommendations (2nd edition). Chicago, IL: American Society of Hand Therapists. 1992
27. Stockbrugger BA, Haennel RG. Validity and reliability of a medicine ball explosive power test. J Strength Cond Res. 2001;15(4):431-8.
28. Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test. Sports Med. 2008;38(1):37-51.
29. Pagaduan JC, Pojskić H, Užičanin E, et al. Effect of various warm-up protocols on jump performance in college football players. J Hum Kinet. 2012;35(1):127-32.
30. Sayers S, Harackiewicz D, Harman E, Frykman P, Rosenstein M. Cross-validation of three jump power equations. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(4):572-7.
31. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 1988
32. Dauty M, Menu P, Fouasson-Chailloux A. Effects of the COVID-19 confinement period on physical conditions in young elite soccer players. J Sport Med Phys Fitness. 2020
33. Korkmaz S, Aslan CS, Eyuboglu E, Celebi M, Kir R, Karakulak I, et al. Impact of detraining process experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic on the selected physical and motor features of football players. Prog Nutr. 2020;22(2):1-7.
34. Moreno‐Perez V, Del Coso J, Romero‐Rodríguez D, Marcé‐Hernández L, Peñaranda M, Madruga‐Parera M. Effects of home confinement due to COVID‐19 pandemic on eccentric hamstring muscle strength in football players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2020;30(10):2010-12.
35. Chatzinikolaou A, Michaloglou K, Avloniti A, Leontsini D, Deli CK, Vlachopoulos D, et al. The trainability of adolescent soccer players to brief periodized complex training. Int J Sport Physiol. 2018;13(5):645-55.
36. Alvero-Cruz JR, Ronconi M. Effects of detraining on breathing pattern and ventilatory efficiency in young soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2017;59(1): 71-5.
37. Koundourakis NE, Androulakis NE, Malliaraki N, Tsatsanis C, Venihaki M, Margioris AN. Discrepancy between exercise performance, body composition, and sex steroid response after a six-week detraining period in professional soccer players. PloS One. 2014;9(2): e87803.
38. Pereira LA, Freitas TT, Pivetti B, Alcaraz PE, Jeffreys I, Loturco I. Short-term detraining does not impair strength, speed, and power performance in elite young soccer players. Sports. 2020;8(11):141.
39. Gavanda S, Geisler S, Quitmann OJ, Bauhaus H, Schiffer T. Three weeks of detraining does not decrease muscle thickness, strength or sport performance in adolescent athletes. Int J Exerc Sci. 2020;13(6):633-44.
40. Chaouachi A, Othman AB, Makhlouf I, Young JD, Granacher U, Behm DG. Global training effects of trained and untrained muscles with youth can be maintained during 4 weeks of detraining. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33(10):2788-800.
41. Vassilis S, Yiannis M, Athanasios M, Dimitrios M, Ioannis G, Thomas M. Effect of a 4-week detraining period followed by a 4-week strength program on isokinetic strength in elite youth soccer players. J Exerc Rehabil. 2019;15(1):67-73.
42. Requena B, García I, Suárez-Arrones L, Sáez de Villarreal E, Naranjo Orellana J, Santalla A. Off-season effects on functional performance, body composition, and blood parameters in top-level professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(4):939-46.
43. Rodriguez-Fernandez A, Sánchez-Sánchez J, Ramirez-Campillo R, Rodríguez-Marroyo JA, Villa Vicente JG, Nakamura FY. Effects of short-term in-season break detraining on repeated-sprint ability and intermittent endurance according to initial performance of soccer player. PloS One. 2018;13(8): e0201111.
44. Joo CH. The effects of short-term detraining on exercise performance in soccer players. J Exerc Rehabil. 2016;12(1):54-59.
45. Nunes ACCA, Cattuzzo MT, Faigenbaum AD, Mortatti AL. Effects of integrative neuromuscular training and detraining on countermovement jump performance in youth volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;10:1-6.
46. Caldwell BP, Peters DM. Seasonal variation in physiological fitness of a semiprofessional soccer team. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(5):1370-7.
47. Dai B, Herman D, Liu H, Garrett WE, Yu B. Prevention of ACL injury, part I: injury characteristics, risk factors, and loading mechanism. Res Sports Med. 2012;20(3-4):180-97.
48. Maldonado-Martin S, Cámara J, James DV, Fernández-López JR, Artetxe-Gezuraga X. Effects of long-term training cessation in young top-level road cyclists. J Sports Sci. 2017;35(14):1396-401.
49. Pereira AS, Aguiar LT, Quintino LF, de Brito SAF, Britto RR, de Morais Faria CDC. Effects of detraining on cardiorespiratory fitness of individuals with chronic stroke. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2020;1-10.
50. Vianna L, Marques DL, Marques MC, Ferraz R. Physical performance changes during circuit training and detraining in U15 soccer players. J Hum Sport Exerc. 2020;15(3proc):708-22.
51. Coyle EF, Hemmert MK, Coggan AR. Effects of detraining on cardiovascular responses to exercise: role of blood volume. J Appl Physiol, 1986;60(1):95-99.
52. Hall JE, Hall ME. Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology e-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2020