Main Article Content
EGCG, H2O2, oxidative damage, protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SDS-PAGE
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), one of the green tea ingredients, is a non-toxic catechin derivative and is an effective polyphenol in preventing tissue damage, cancer formation and increasing metabolic rate. Strong antioxidant property EGCG having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor and various organs as well as neuroprotective effect of many convenience protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, four groups were formed to investigate whether Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has a protective role against the damage caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Groups: (i) Control Group; Yeast cultivated group only; (ii) EGCG Group: EGCG administered group (10 %); (iii) H2O2 Group: Group given H2O2 (15 mM); (iv) EGCG + H2O2 (15 mM) Group: Group given EGCG (10 %) + H2O2 (15 mM). S. cerevisiae cultures were developed at 30 °C for 1, 3, 5 and 24 hours (h). Cell growth, lipid peroxidation MDA (malondialdehyde) analysis and GSH (glutathione) levels were determined by spectrophotometer. Total protein changes were detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and calculated by Bradford method. According to the results obtained; Cell growth (1, 3, 5 and 24 h), total protein synthesis and GSH levels (24 h) increased in EGCG groups, while MDA level decreased (24 h) when compared with H2O2 group. As a result, EGCG has been shown to have an effect that promotes cell growth and total protein synthesis as well as reducing oxidative damage in S. cerevisiae culture.
2. Guzeldir K. The ımportance and the place of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) kuntze) ın phytotherapy. Gazi Univ Ankara Turkey 2015.
3. Sarıca Y. Evaluation of protective effects of CAPE and EGCG on PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways in rat testicular torsion ıschemia / reperfusion ınjury. Celal Bayar Univ Manısa Turkey 2014.
4. Bilcanoglu B. A research on the purıfıcatıon of catechın from green tea waste wıth macroporous adsorptıon resıns. Inonu Univ Malatya Turkey 2019.
5. Aslan A, Boydak D, Can MI, Kuloglu T. Nigella sativa improves the carbon tetrachloride-induced lung damage in rats through repression of erk/akt pathway. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2015; 10: 654–659.
6. Aslan A, Boydak D, Can MI, Kuloglu T, Baspinar S. Black cumin may be a potential drug for development of carbontetrachloride-induced lung damage in rats. Prog Nutr, 2016; 18 (1): 56-62.
7. Karakus A. Investıgatıon of pro-apoptotıc and antı-apoptotıc proteıns ın the apoptotıc mechanısm trıggered by EGCG ın HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Dokuz Eylul Univ Izmır Turkey 2011.
8. Zhong Y, Ma CM, Shahidi F. Antioxidant and antiviral activities of lipophilic epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) derivatives. J Funct Foods, 2012; 4: 87-93.
9. Akıncı N. Analysıs of the effects of dıstınct chromatın modulators on NTH1 and TPS1 gene expressıon in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Univ ManisaTurkey 2019.
10. Aslan A, Baspinar S, Yilmaz O. Is pomegranate juice has a vital role for protective effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth? Prog Nutr 2014a; 16 (3): 212-217.
11. Aslan A, Beyaz S, Gok O. The protective effect of tomato extract against to chromium-ınduced damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Univ J Sci Tech 2019a; 12: 1048-1055.
12. Aslan A, Gok O, Beyaz S. The protective effect of grape seed extract against to hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Igdır Univ J Inst Sci Tech 2019b; 9: 2216-2224.
13. Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 1970; 227:680-685.
14. Aslan A, Gok O, Erman O, Kuloglu T. Ellagic acid impedes carbontetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats through suppression of NF-κB, Bcl-2 and regulating Nrf-2 and caspase pathway. Biomed Pharmacother 2018; 105:662–669.
15. Cesurer G. The effect of magnesium on nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and glutathione in mice liver tissue fed on fat-diet. Kafkas Univ Kars Turkey 2015.
16. Sosuncu E. Measurement of antıoxıdant enzymes and lıpıd peroxıdatıon levels ın severe blunt head injurıes. Yuzuncu Yıl Univ Van Turkey (2015)
17. Aslan A, Gok O, Erman O. The protective effect of kiwi fruit extract against to chromium effect on protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prog Nutr 2017; 19: 472-476.
18. Aslan A, Can MI, Boydak D. Anti-oxidant effects of pomegranate juice on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell growth. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2014b; 11 (4): 14-18.
19. Luo KW, Chen W, Lung WY, Wei XY, Cheng BH, Cai ZM, et al. EGCG inhibited bladder cancer SW780 cell proliferation and migration both in vitro and in vivo via down-regulation of NF-κB and MMP-9. J Nutr Biochem 2017; 41: 56–64.
20. Marques F, Azevedo F, Johansson B, Oliveira R. Stimulation of DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. Food ChemToxicol 2011; 49: 1361-1366.
21. Othman A, El-Sawi M, El-Missiry M, Abukhalil M. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects against diabetic cardiomyopathy through modulating the cardiometabolic risk factors, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death and fibrosis ın streptozotocin-nicotinamide -induced diabetic rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 94: 362–373.
22. Aslan A. The effects of different essential fruit juice and their combination on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell growth. Prog Nutr 2015; 17: 36-40.
23. Huang KH, Fang W, Li A, Liang P, Wu C, Shyr Y, et al. Caspase-3, a key apoptotic protein, as a prognostic marker ın gastric cancer after curative surgery. Int J Surg 2019; 52: 258–263.
24. Zhao X, Lıu F, Jın H, Lı R, Wang Y, Zhang W, et al. Involvement of PKCα and ERK1/2 signaling pathways ın EGCG’s protectıon agaınst stress-ınduced neural ınjurıes ın wıstar rats. Neurosci 2017; 346: 226–237.
25. Aslan A. Cell culture developing and the imaging of total protein product changing with SDS-PAGE in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prog Nutr 2018; 20: 128-132.
26. Gibbons TE, Pence BD, Petr G, Ossyra J, Mach H, Bhattacharya TK, et al. Voluntary wheel running, but not a diet containing (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and β-alanine, improves learning, memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice. Behav Brain Res 2014; 272: 131–140.
27. Lopez L, Valadez M, Sanchez G, Lucero M, Perez T, Ballesteros R, et al. Green tea compound epıgallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) increases neuronal survival in adult hippocampal neurogenesıs in vıvo and in vıtro. Neurosci 2016; 322: 208–220.
28. Zhang G, Zhang J. Enhanced oral bioavailability of EGCG using ph-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles: Characterization and in vivo investigation on nephrotic syndrome rats. Drug Des Develop Ther 2018; 12: 2509-2518.
29. Zhu C, Xu Y, Liu ZH, Wan XC, Li DX, Tai LL. The anti-hyperuricemic effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on hyperuricemic mice. Biomed Pharmacother 2018; 97: 168–173.
30. Kiruthika B, Padma PR. Zea mays leaf extracts protect Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell against oxidative stress-induced cell death. J Acute Medic 2013; 3: 83-92.
31. Shanmugam T, Selvaraj M, Poomalai S. Epigallocatechin gallate potentially abrogates flüoride induced lung oxidative stress, inflammation via Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway in rats: An in-vivo and in-silico study. Int Immunopharmacol 2016; 39: 128-139.
32. Aslan A, Hussein YT, Gok O, Beyaz S, Erman O, Baspinar S. Ellagic acid ameliorates lung damage in rats via modulating antioxidant activities, inhibitory effects on inflammatory mediators and apoptosis-inducing activities. Env Sci Pollut Res 2020a; 27: 7526-7537.
33. Kim E, Han SY, Hwang K, Kim D, Kim EM, Hossain MA, et al. Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-(3 ″-O-methyl) gallate. Int J Mol Sci 2019; 20: 3993.
34. Ko H, Yani Y, Jeon H, Jeong MH, Choi HK, Ryu SH, et al. TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acetylation of Smad2 and Smad3 are negatively regulated by EGCG in human A549 lung cancer cell. Cancer Lett 2013; 335:205-213.
35. Huang Z, Yu Y, Fang Z, Deng Y, Shen Y, Shi P. OLE1 reduces cadmium-induced oxidative damage ın Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbio Lett 2018; 365: fny193
36. Chen Y, Cheng L, Zhang X, Cao J, Wu Z, Zheng X. Transcriptomic and proteomic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3” Me) treatment on ethanol-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Food Res Int 2019; 119: 67-75.
37. Kaushal S, Ahsan AU, Sharma VL, Chopra M. Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates arsenic induced genotoxicity via regulation of oxidative stress in balb/C mice. Mol Bio Rep 2019; 46: 5355-5369.
38. Chong SY, Chiang HY, Chen TH, Liang YJ, Lo YC. Green tea extract promotes DNA repair in a yeast model. Sci Rep 2019; 9: 3842.
39. Kose T, Vera-Aviles M, Sharp P, Latunde-Dada G. Curcumin and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate protect murine MIN6 pancreatic beta-cells against ıron toxicity and erastin-ınduced ferroptosis. Pharmaceut 2019; 12: 26.
40. Colina JR, Suwalsky M, Manrique-Moreno M, Petit K, Aguilar LF, Jemiola-Rzeminska M, et al. Protective effect of epigallocatechin gallate on human erythrocytes. Coll Surf B: Biointerface 2019; 173:742-750.
41. Karacaoglu E, Girgin G, Selmanoglu G, Baydar T. Antioxidant effects of epigallocatechin gallate in cerulein-ınduced pancreatitis. Europ J Biol 2019; 78: 125-132.
42. Beyaz S, Gok O, Aslan A. The indicatıon of effect of gınger (Zingiber officinale) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae totally protein expressıon wıth SDS-PAGE technıque. 1st Inter Malatya Congr Appl Sci Malatya Turkey 2019.
43. Gok O, Beyaz S, Aslan A. The ınvestıgation of effect of hawthorn fruit on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell growth wıth molecular bıologıcal and bıochemıcal process. 1st Inter Malatya Congr Appl Sci Malatya Turkey 2019.
44. Aslan A, Beyaz S, Gok O, Erman O. The effect of ellagic acid on caspase-3/bcl-2/Nrf-2/NF-kB/TNF-α/COX-2 gene expression product apoptosis pathway: a new approach for muscle damage therapy. Mol Biol Rep 2020b; 47: 2573-2582.
45. Shin YS, Kang SU, Park JK, Kim YE, Kim YS, Baek SJ, et al. Anti-cancer effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in head and neck cancer through repression of transactivation and enhanced degradation of β-catenin. Phytomed 2016; 23: 1344-1355.
46. Stuart EC, Scandlyn MJ, Rosengren RJ. Role of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer. Life Sci 2006; 79: 2329-2336.
47. Dhatwalia SK, Kumar M, Bhardwaj P, Dhawan DK. White tea-a cost effective alternative to EGCG in fight against benzo (a) pyrene (bap) induced lung toxicity in SD rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2019; 131:110551.
48. Saeed NM, El-Naga RN, El-Bakly WM, Abdel-Rahman HM, ElDin RAS, El-Demerdash E. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate pretreatment attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: A mechanistic study. Biochem Pharmacol 2015; 95: 145-155.
49. Li ZG, Yi XY, Li YT. Effect of pretreatment with hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide on heat tolerance in relation to antioxidant system in maize (Zea mays) seedlings. Biologia 2014; 69: 1001-1009.
50. Peng A, Ye T, Rakheja D, Tu Y, Wang T, Du Y, et al. The green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates experimental immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 2011; 80: 601-611.
51. Mitrica R, Dumitru I, Ruta LL, Ofiteru AM, Farcasanu IC. The dual action of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of green tea, against the deleterious effects of visible light and singlet oxygen-generating conditions as seen in yeast cells. Molecules 2012; 17: 10355-10369.
52. Zbynovska K, Petruska P, Kalafova A, Ondruska L, Jurcik R, Chrastinova L, et al. Antioxidant status of rabbits after treatment with epicatechin and patulin. Biologia 2016; 71: 835-842.
53. Aslan A, Gok O, Beyaz S, Arslan E, Erman O, Agca CA. The preventive effect of ellagic acid on brain damage in rats via regulating of Nrf‐2, NF‐κB and apoptotic pathway. J Food Biochem 2020c; 44: e13217.
54. Zhu J, Ou L, Zhou Y, Yang Z, Bie M. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces interferon-λ2 expression to anti-influenza A virus in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) through p38 MAPK signaling pathway. J Thorac Dis 2020; 12: 989-997.
55. Weber C, Sliva K, Rhein C, Kümmerer BM, Schnierle BS. The green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate inhibits chikungunya virus infection. Antivir Res 2015; 113: 1-3.
56. Oliveira A, Adams SD, Lee LH, Murray SR, Hsu SD, Hammond JR, et al. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 with the modified green tea polyphenol palmitoyl-epigallocatechin gallate. Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 52: 207-215.