Main Article Content
Physical exercise, gymnasium, nutritional supplements, sports
Background: Various surveys all over the world have elucidated the extent of use of nutritional supplements for enhanced exercise as well as athletic performance. The use of nutritional supplements is becoming increasingly popular amongst individuals exercising in gymnasiums. The popular uses of nutritional supplements by individuals exercising in gymnasiums include improved performance, rapid weight loss and prevention of injury.Objective: To assess use of nutritional supplements amongst individuals exercising at various gymnasiums in Karachi and Islamabad. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study included 300 participants. The questionnaires included information related to socio-demographics, activity level at work, days in a week exercising at gymnasium, types of exercises at gymnasium , benefits experienced after nutritional supplements use, weight, height, smoker or non-smoker, number of cigarettes smoked in a day by participants who were smokers and the number of hours the participants slept in a day. Informed consent was taken from all participants prior to participation in this study. Following attainment of consent, participants were provided with questionnaires. Results: In this study 324 (74.5%) participants were aware of nutritional supplements. Majority 108 (24.8%) reported improved performance. Whey protein emerged as the nutritional supplement being used by majority of participants in this study. Associations between use of nutritional supplements before and after exercise with reasons, frequency, types and benefits were significant with a p value of less than 0.05. Conclusion: Use of nutritional supplements by individuals exercising in gymnasium can be highly beneficial for improved performance and prevention of injury.
2.Silva WVD, Silva MIDAG, Toscano LT, Oliveira KHDD, Lacerda LMD , Silva AS. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners. Nutr Hosp. 2014; 29(1) : 158-165.
3.Goston JL, Correia MI. Intake of nutritional supplements among people exercising in gyms and influencing factors. Nutrition. 2010 ; 26(6) : 604‑11.
4.Bianco A, Mammina C, Paoli A, Bellafiore M, Battaglia G, Caramazza G, et al. Protein supplementation in strength and conditioning adepts: Knowledge, dietary behavior and practice in Palermo, Italy. J IntSoc Sports Nutr. 2011; 8(25) : 1-6.
5.LacerdaI FMM, CarvalhoII WRG , ElaneVianaHortegalIII EV, CabralIII NAL ,VelosoIII HJF. Factors associated with dietary supplement use by people who exercise at gyms. Rev SaúdePública. 2015; 49 (63): 1-9.
6.Jawadi AH , Addar AM , Alazzam AS, Alrabieah FO, Alsheikh ASA , Amer R, et al. Prevalence of Dietary Supplements Use among Gymnasium Users. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2017;(2017): 1-8.
7.Khoury DE , Antoine-Jonville SA. Intake of Nutritional Supplements among People Exercising in Gyms in Beirut City. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2012; (2012) : 1-12.
8.Maughan RJ, Burke LM, Dvorak J et al. IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete. Br J Sports Med. 2018 ; 52(7): 439–455.
9.Peeling P, Castell LM, Derave W, Hon OD, Burke LM. Sports Foods and Dietary Supplements for Optimal FunctionInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2019, 29, 198-209
10.Kårlund A, Gallego CG, Turpeinen AM, Palooja OM, Nezami HE, Kolehmainen M. Protein Supplements and Their Relation with Nutrition, Microbiota Composition and Health: Is More Protein Always Better for Sportspeople?. Nutrients. 2019 ;11 : 829.
11.Amatori S, Sisti D, Perroni F , Impey S, Lantignotti 1 M, Gervasi M et al. Which are the Nutritional Supplements Used by Beach-Volleyball Athletes? A Cross-Sectional Study at the Italian National Championship. 2020. Sports 8, 31.
12.Trianloka CAMB, Hidayat AUMJ, Awaluddin3 R and Firmansyah F. Potential Tropical Fruits to Aid Sports Performance and its Prospect to be Developed into Nano supplement. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 448 (2020)
13.Martone AM, Marzetti E, Calvani R, Picca A, Tosato M, Santoro L, et al. Exercise and Protein Intake: A Synergistic Approach against Sarcopenia. BioMed Research International. 2017; (2017) : 1-7.
14.Bianco A, Mammina C, Thomas E, Ciulla F, PupellaU,Gagliardo F, et al. Protein supplements consumption: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy. BMC Sports Science, Medicine, and Rehabilitation. 2014 ; 6 (29): 1-5.
15.Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM. 70th Anniversary Conference on ‘From plough through practice to policy’ Plenary Lecture 2 Nutrition for sports performance: issues and opportunities. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2012; 71 : 112–19.
16. Gonzalez A, Church D, Townsend JR, Bagheri R. Emerging Nutritional Supplements for Strength and Hypertrophy: An Update of the Current Literature. Strength and conditioning Journal. 2020;00(00).
17.Espinosa IEG, Huerta LAC, Lobos AP, Aguilera CJ. Analysis of the use of nutritional supplements in gyms in
Coquimbo, Chile. Arch Med Deporte 2018;35(6):369-375.
18.Vitale K, GetzinA.Nutrition and Supplement Update for the Endurance Athlete: Review and Recommendations. Nutrients 2019; 11: 1289.
19.Willoughby DS, Stout JR, Wilborn CD. Effects of resistance training and protein plus amino acid supplementation on muscle anabolism, mass, and strength. Amino Acids. 2007 ; 32(4): 467-77.
20.Salami A, Ghaddar A, Aboumrad E, Joumaa WH. Dietary Supplement Use in Sport Gyms in Lebanon: Are They Necessary and are There Side-Effects?. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2017 ; 6(1): 1-5.
21.FijanA,Eftekhari MH, ArashDashtabiAThe Prevalence of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Misuse and its Associated Factors among Bodybuilders in Shiraz, Iran. Int J NutrSci 2018;3(3):151-156.
22. Paoli A. Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 538Advances in Sport and Performance Nutrition
23.Guest NS, Horne J, Vanderhout SM and Sohemy AE, Sport Nutrigenomics: Personalized Nutrition for Athletic Performance. Guest NS, Horne J, Vanderhout SM and El-Sohemy A (2019) Sport Nutrigenomics: Personalized Nutrition for Athletic Performance.
Front. Nutr. 6:8
24.Poulios A, Georgakouli K, Draganidis D, Deli CK, Tsimeas PD, Chatzinikolaou A. Protein-Based Supplementation to Enhance Recovery in Team Sports: What is the Evidence?. J Sports Sci Med. 2019 Sep; 18(3): 523–536.
25. Wardenaar FC, Ceelen IJ, Van Dijk J-W, Hangelbroek RW, Van Roy L, Van der Pouw B, etal. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does ReceivingDietary Counselling Make a Difference? Int J Sport NutrExercMetab. 2016;1–25.
26.Rezaei SMA. Study the Prevalence of Anabolic Steroids Consumption among Bodybuilding Athletes in Yasuj, Iran. Int J NutrSci.2017;2:103-8
27.Jäger R, Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, Cribb PJ, Wells SD, Skwiat TM. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J IntSoc Sports Nutr. 2017; 14: 20.
28.Burke LM. Supplements for Optimal Sports Performance. Current Opinion in Physiology 2019, 10:156–165
29.Davies RW, Carson BP, Jakeman PM. The Effect of Whey Protein Supplementation on the Temporal Recovery of Muscle Function Following Resistance Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2018 ;10 :22.
30. K. Froiland, W. Koszewski, J. Hingst, and L. Kopecky, Nutritional supplement use among college athletes and their sources of information. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2004; 14(1): pp. 104–120.
31.D. M. Jenkinson , A. J. Harbert. Supplements and sports. American Family Physician. 2008 ;78 (9) : 1039–1046.
32.Jonvik KL, Paulussen KL, Danen SL, et al. Protein supplementation does not augment adaptations to endurance exercise training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2019; 51(10):.2041–2049.
33. Coopoo Y, McCreanor X, Gabriels G. Nutritional supplements use, cost, source of information, and practices by Johannesburg North gym goers. SAJSM. 2020; 32 ( 1).
34. .Karimian J and Esfahani PS. Supplement consumption in body builder athletes. J Res Med Sci. 2011; 16(10): 1347–1353
35.Oliver AS, LeónTM, Hernández EG. Prevalence ofprotein supplement use at gyms. Nutr Hosp. 2011:26(5):1168-1174
36.Aljaloud S. O., Ibrahim S. A. Use of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2013;2013:7
37.Tsitsimpikou C, Chrisostomou N, Papalexis, P, Tsarouhas K, Tsatsakis A, Jamurtas A. The Use of Nutritional Supplements Among Recreational Athletes in Athens, Greece. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2011 ; 21 : 377 -384
38.Ali EAA, Elgamal HH. Use of dietary supplements among gym trainees in Tanta city, Egypt. The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association. 2016, 91(4):185-191
39. Ruano J, Teixeira VH. Prevalence of dietary supplement use by gym members in Portugal and associated factors. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2020; 17: 11.
40.Saeed AAA, Almaqhawi A, Ibrahim S. Nutritional Supplements Intake by Gym Participants in Saudi Arabia: A National Population-Based Study. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Phytopharmacological Research. 2020 ; 10 : 43-52