Main Article Content
early enteral nutrition, probiotics, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory factors, nutritional status
Objective: To explore the effects of early enteral nutrition combined with probiotics on neurological function, nutrition, inflammation, immune function and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Methods: A total of 136 TBI patients treated in our hospital were selected as the objects of study, and randomly divided into control group (n=68) and treatment group (n=68). The patients in control group didn’t take Bifid Triple Viable Enteric-Coated Capsules, while those in treatment group took Bifid Triple Viable Enteric-Coated Capsules. The levels of serum inflammatory factors, T lymphocyte subsets, D-lactic acid, procalcitonin (PCT) and VEGF, and the changes in the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score for neurological function, nutritional status and immune function were compared in both groups before and after treatment. The incidence of complications was observed in the two groups.
Results: Compared with those before treatment, the levels of serum transferrin (TRF), prealbumin (PA), albumin (ALB), immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, IgM, cluster of differentiation 3+ (CD3+), CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ and GCS score significantly rose, while the levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), D-lactic acid, PCT, VEGF and CD8+ remarkably declined in the two groups after treatment, and their changes were more obvious in treatment group (p<0.05). The incidence rate of complications was evidently lower in treatment group than that in control group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Early enteral nutrition combined with probiotics can significantly improve the nutritional status and serum VEGF expression, reduce the inflammatory response and complications, and enhance the immune function in TBI patients, which has important clinical application value.
2. Annis K, Ott L, Kearney PA: Nutritional Support of the Severe Head-Injured Patient. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 1991, 6(6):245-250.
3. Mazur A, Maier JAM, Rock E, Gueux E, Nowacki W, Rayssiguier Y: Magnesium and the inflammatory response: potential physiopathological implications. Archives of Biochemistry & Biophysics 2007, 458(1):48-56.
4. Aldebasi YH, Rahmani AH, Khan AA, Aly SM: The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in the progression of bladder cancer and diabetic retinopathy. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Medicine 2013, 6(4):239-251.
5. pmhdev: Do a group of drugs known as monoaminergic agonists help the brain recovery after a severe injury? John Wiley & Sons Ltd for the Cochrane Collaboration 2011.
6. Levy S: Probiotics are Gaining Popularity to Treat G.I. Problems as well as to Promote Good Heatlh. Drug Topics 2008(May, 12).
7. Horsley KJ, Rouleau CR, Campbell TS: Symptoms of depression but not anxiety are associated with attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise stress testing in cardiac rehabilitation patients. In: CACR 2013 Annual Meeting & Symposium: 2013.
8. Kim BJ, Jung HW, Lee KP, Kim SH, Chun TH, Hwang KW, Won TJ: NOVEL LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM AND COMPOSITION COMPRISING THE SAME. 2012.
9. Yang X, Shi Z, Li X, Li J: Impacts of stellate ganglion block on plasma NF-κB and inflammatory factors of TBI patients. Int J Clin Exp Med 2014, 8(9):15630-15638.
10. George J, Schwartzenberg S, Medvedovsky D, Jonas M, Charach G, Afek A, Shamiss A: Regulatory T cells and IL-10 levels are reduced in patients with vulnerable coronary plaques. Atherosclerosis 2012, 222(2):519-523.
11. Marquez DLP, Carlos, Hewlitt M, De Oliveira A, Hudak A, Harper C, Shafi S, Diaz-Arrastia R: Ethnic differences in rehabilitation placement and outcome after TBI. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2007, 22(2):113-121.
12. Neu J: Formulation to Improve Gastrointestinal Function. 2010.
13. Chen W, Zhang Z, Xiong M, Meng X, Wang M: Early enteral nutrition after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2014, 23(4):607-611.
14. Svennerholm AM, Lange S, Holmgren J: Correlation between intestinal synthesis of specific immunoglobulin A and protection against experimental cholera in mice. Infection & Immunity 1978, 21(1):1.
15. Hua SU, Caldwell AD: CD4+ T cells play a significant role in adoptive immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the mouse genital tract. Infection & Immunity 1995, 63(9).
16. Mandell, L.A: Infections in the Compromised Host. Medical Clinics of North America 1990, 18(3):177-190.
17. Banović T, Pejnović N, Kataranovski M, Dujić A: IL-1, TNF and IL-6 Release by Wound- inflammatory Cells During the Healing Process in Two Strains of Rats. Immunoregulation in Health & Disease 1997:339-346.
18. Kondo S, Ueno H, Hashimoto J, Morizane C, Koizumi F, Okusaka T, Tamura K: Circulating endothelial cells and other angiogenesis factors in pancreatic carcinoma patients receiving gemcitabine chemotherapy. BMC Cancer,12,1(2012-06-25) 2012, 12(1):268.
19. Zhuang Y, Wang DD, Liu ZL, Cao YB: Effects of smoking on TNF-α expression in rats' brain. Modern Preventive Medicine 2012.
20. Dos Santos JL, Chung Man C, Moreira Lima L, Ferreira Costa F, Lanaro C: USE OF PHTHALIMIDE AND/OR SULPHONAMIDE DERIVATIVES IN THE TREATMENT OF DISEASES WHICH REQUIRE REDUCING THE TNF-alpha LEVELS AND AN EXOGENOUS SOURCE OF NITRIC OXIDE, PHTHALIMIDE DERIVATIVES, SULPHONAMIDE DERIVATIVES, AND A METHOD FOR OBTAINING A SULPHONAMID. In.: EP; 2012.
21. Federal, S\\u00e3o, Paulo, University, Brazil: Evaluation of nutritional status of nonhospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis. Arquivos De Gastroenterologia 2007.
22. Bergström J: Nutrition and mortality in hemodialysis. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1995, 6(5):1329-1341.