Factors affecting diet quality in adolescents: the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and meal consumption FACTORS AFFECTING DIET QUALITY IN ADOLESCENTS

Main Article Content



Adolescent, Mediterranean diet, diet quality, KIDMED


Background: Determining the quality of diet in individuals and having a good understanding of the factors affecting it would be essential in understanding the means to improve diet quality.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the diet quality and the factors affecting the diet quality of middle adolescents using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED).

Methods: In total, 550 adolescents aged 14–18 years participated in the study. Individuals who voluntarily participated completed the KIDMED scale and a questionnaire that investigated the demographic and general characteristics, eating habits, and anthropometric measurements. Of the participants, 57.5% were girls and 42.5% were boys. The mean KIDMED score of the participants was 5.12 ± 2.40. A model was created based on age, sex, number of main meals and snacks, BMI, income level, and education level of the parents, which were considered to have an effect on KIDMED. Increase in the BMI increased the KIDMED score by 0.057 units; additionally, the score increased in women by 0.550 units, in individuals with an income that was higher than their expenses by 1.245 units, in cases when the participant’s mother had a graduate-level education by 1.541 units, and in cases when the participant’s father had a high school diploma level education by 0.621 units. In total, 75.2% of the KIDMED score was explained through these variables.

Results: According to the study data, diet quality of the adolescents was at a medium level, and diet quality was affected by the family income, parental education level, gender, number of meals, and BMI.

Conclusions: These results show the need for intervention programs that consider the general and sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals and their families, as well as other factors such as healthy eating habits and body weight.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 138 | PDF Downloads 31


1. Oberle CD, Samaghabadi RO, Hughes EM. Orthorexia nervosa: Assessment and correlates with gender, BMI, and personality. Appetite 2017; 108: 303-310.
2. Sanlier N, Pehlivan M, Sabuncular G, Bakan S, Isguzar Y. Determining the relationship between body mass index, healthy lifestyle behaviors and social appearance anxiety. Ecology of food and nutrition 2018; 57(2): 124-139.
3. Dias JA, Wirfalt E, Drake I et al. A high quality diet is associated with reduced systemic inflammation in middle-aged individuals. Atherosclerosis. 2015; 238: 38-44.
4. Drummen M, Tischmann L, Gatta-Cherifi B et all. Dietary protein and energy in relation to obesity and co-morbidities. Front Endocrinol 2018; 6(9): 443-456.
5. Kurotani K, Akter S, Kashino I et al. Quality of diet and mortality among Japanese men and women: Japan Public Health Center based prospective study. BMJ. 2016; 352: i1209.
6. Erkan T. Ergenlerde beslenme. Türk Ped Arş 2011; 46: 49-53.
7. Choi J. Impact of stress levels on eating behaviors among college students. Nutrients 2020; 12:1241.
8. Gonzales A, Kohn MR, Clarke SD. Eating disorders in adolescents. Australian Family Physician 2007; 36: 614-9.
9. Rodrigues PRM, Luiz RR, Monteiro LS, Ferreira MG, Gonçalves-Silva RMV, Pereira RA. Adolescents’ unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping. Nutrition 2017; 42: 114-120.
10. Ho CY, Huang YC, Lo WTC, Wahlqvist ML, Lee MS. Breakfast is associated with the metabolic syndrome and school performance among Taiwanese children. Res Dev Disabil 2015; 44: 179–188.
11. Monzani A, Rapa A, Fuiano N, Diddi G, Prodam F, Bellone S, Bona G. Metabolic syndrome is strictly associated with parental obesity beginning from childhood. Clin Endoc 2013; 81: 45–51.
12. Osawa H, Sugihara N, Ukiya T, Ishizuka Y, Birkhed D, Hasegawa M, Matsukubo T. Metabolic syndrome, lifestyle, and dental caries in japanese school children. Bull. Tokyo Dent Coll 2015; 56: 233–241.
13. O’Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Fulgoni VL. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight measures in breakfast patterns consumed by children compared with breakfast skippers: NHANES 2001–2008. AIMS Public Health 2015; 2: 441–468.
14. Marlatt KL, Farbakhsh K, Dengel DR, Lytle LA. Breakfast and fast food consumption are associated with selected biomarkers in adolescents. Prev Med Rep 2016; 3; 49–52.
15. Monzani A, Ricotti R, Caputo M, Solito A, Archero F, Bellone S, Prodam F. A systematic review of the association of skipping breakfast with weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. What should we better investigate in the future? Nutrients; 2019; 11(2): 387.
16. Assefa H, Belachew T, Negash L. Socio-demographic factors associated with underweight and stunting among adolescents in Ethiopia. The Pan African medical journal 2015; 20.
17. Soekatri MY, Sandjaja S, Syauqy A. Stunting Was Associated with Reported Morbidity, Parental Education and socioeconomic Status in 0.5–12-Year-Old Indonesian Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2020; 17(17): 6204.
18. Serra-Majem L., Ribas L., Ngo J. Food, youth and the Mediterranean Diet in Spain. Development of KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents. Public Health Nutr 2004; 7:931-935.
19. Sahingoz SA, Dogan L. The implementation and evaluation of a nutrition education programme about Mediterranean diet for adolescents. Progress In Nutrition 2019; 21(2): 316-326.
20. Aydın G, Öngün Yılmaz H. Evaluation of the nutritional status, compliance with the Mediterranean diet, physical activity levels, and obesity prejudices of adolescents. Progr Nutr [Internet]. 2020Oct.9 [cited 2020Nov.10];23(2). Available from: https://mattioli1885journals.com/index.php/progressinnutrition/article/view/10449
21. Woodruff SJ, Hanning RM, Lambraki I, Storey KE, McCargar L. Healthy Eating Index-C is compromised among adolescents with body weight concerns, weight loss dieting, and meal skipping. Body Image 2008; 5:404-8.
22. Acar Tek N, Yildiran H, Akbulut G, Bilici S, Koksal E, Gezmen Karadag M, Sanlıer N. Evaluation of dietary quality of adolescents using Healthy Eating Index. Nutr Res Pract 2011; 5(4): 322-328.
23. Yıldırım GB, Öngün Yılmaz H. The effect of written and visual media on nutrition and physical activity in adolescence. International Peer-reviewed Journal of Nutrition Research. 2018; 14: 27-46.
24. Drenowat, C, Shook RP, Hand GA, Hébert JR, Blair SN. The independent association between diet quality and body composition. Scientific reports 2014; 4: 4928.
25. Sundararajan K, Campbell MK, Choi YH, Sarma S. The relationship between diet quality and adult obesity: evidence from Canada. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2014; 33(1): 1-17.
26. Yüksel A., Önal HY., Kurt KG. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Factors Affecting Obesity in High School Students. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences 2017; 6(12): 78-86.
27. Adamo KB., Brett KE. Parental perceptions and childhood dietary quality. Maternal and child health journal 2014; 18(4): 978-995.
28. Alderman H, Headey DD. How important is parental education for child nutrition?. World Development 2017; 94: 448-464.
29. Rito, A. I., Dinis, A., Rascôa, C., Maia, A., Mendes, S., Stein-Novais, C., & Lima, J. (2018). Mediterranean Diet Index (KIDMED) Adherence, Socioeconomic Determinants, and Nutritional Status of Portuguese Children: The Eat Mediterranean Program. Portuguese Journal of Public Health, 36(3), 122-130.
30. Dayi T, Soykut G, Ozturk SM, Yucecan S. Mothers and children adherence to the mediterranean diet: evidence from a mediterranean country. Progress in Nutrition 2020; 22(3): in press. DOI: 10.23751/pn.v22i3.9844.