Violence tendency, resilience and decision-making in football referees of various classes. A study in Turkey

Main Article Content

Keywords

Turkey Football Referee, Decision-Making Styles, Resilience, Tendency to Violence

Abstract

The objective is to investigate; violence tendency, resilience and decision-making styles of Turkey football referees and to find out whether these characteristics change with respect to age, gender, marital status, education, economic status, refereeing years-class, and exposure to violence. This study was conducted with 1115 football referees of various classes who were selected using the cluster sampling method. When the data were analysed with the SPSS 18.0 package program, the level of resilience was found higher in women, married, older individuals, those with higher education-income level and those who were exposed to violence. The violence tendency scores were found significant in favour of men and those exposed to violence, the 18-23 age interval, those aged over 36, those received associate degree education and those with a low income and an income in the range of 2501-3000. With respect to decision-making styles, the rational decision-making score was found significant in favour of those married and with high economic income, the intuitive decision-making score in favour of those who have a PhD and high level of income and the dependent and avoidant decision-making score in favour of those who have a PhD and men. The spontaneous decision-making was found significant in favour of men, singles,  younger referees and in those with a PhD level of education.


 


 


 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 11 |

References

1.Kılcıgil E, Partal M. Süper ligde oynayan bir futbol takımı taraftarlarının şiddete neden olan tahrik olma unsurları üzerine bir araştırma. Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 2003; 8(2): 43-52.
2. Efe M, Öztürk F, Koparan Ş. Bursa ilindeki faal futbol hakemlerinin problem çözme ve atılganlık düzeylerinin belirlenmesi. Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 2008; 6(2): 49-58.
3. Albayrak O, İbiş S, Kayışoğlu NB. Futbol hakemlerinin meslek ve aile yaşantılarında karşılaşmış oldukları sorunlar. Selçuk Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilim Dergisi 2012; 14 (1): 75-82.
4. Weinberg RS, Richardson PA. İyi hakemin özellikleri. Çeviri: Rıdvan Ekmekçi, Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences 1990; 2(1): 1-5.
5. Pak MD, Özcan E, İçağasıoğlu Çoban A. Acil servis çalışanlarının ikincil travmatik stres düzeyi ve psikolojik dayanıklılığı, Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi 2017; 10 (52): 628-644.
6. Başbakanlık Aile Araştırma Kurumu Başkanlığı, Aile içinde ve toplumsal alanda şiddet. Ankara : Başbakanlık Aile Araştırma Kurumu Başkanlığı Yayınları. Bilim Serisi 1998; 113.
7. Connor KM, Davidson JRT. Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CDRISC). Depression and Anxiety 2003; 18: 76-82.
8. Karaırmak Ö. Establishing the psychometric qualities of the Connor-Davisson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in a trauma survivor sample. Psychiatry Researc 2010; 179(3): 350-356.
9. Scott S.G. ve Bruce R. A. Decision-Making Style: The Development and Assessment of a New Measure. Educational and Psychological Measurement 1995; (55): 18-31.
10. Taşdelen A.Decision making styles of student teachers in relation to different psychosocial characteristics. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Dokuz Eylül University. Educational Sciences Institute 2002.
11.Lips HM. Sex and gender: an introduction (4.ed) California: Mayfiel Publishing Company, 2001; 40-55.
12. Uzunoğlu ÖU, Şahin M, Fişekçioğlu İB. Türk futbol hakemlerinin karar verme stillerinin klasmanlarına ve bazı değişkenlere göre incelenmesi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilim Dergisi 2009; 11(1): 32-36.
13. Ganzel AK. Adolescent decision making: the influence of mood, age, and gender on the consideration of information, Journal of Adolescent Research 1999; (14): 289-318.
14. Astin S, Redston P, Campbell A. Sex differences in social representations of aggression: men justify, women excuse? Aggressive Behavior 2003; 29(2): 128-133.
15. Lopez VA, Emmer ET. Influences of beliefs and values on male adolescents decisions to commit violent offenses. Psychology of Men and Masculinity 2002; 3: 28-40.
16. Karagün E. Violence tendencies of high school students: an examination in terms of exposure to violence, participation in sports and socio-demographic attributes. Education Researc and Reviews 2015; 10(1): 29-35.
17. Thomas SP, Smith H. School connectedness, anger behaviors, and relationships of violent and nonviolent American youth. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 2004; 40(4): 135-138.
18. Heitmeyer M, Hagan J. International handbook of violence research, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers 2005; 3-11.
19. Tümlü GÜ, Recepoğlu E. Üniversite akademik personelinin psikolojik dayanıklılık ve yaşam doyumu arasındaki ilişki. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi 2013; 3(3): 205-213.
20. Wang D, Hu M, Yin X. Positive academic emotions and psychological resilience among rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Social Behavior and Personality 2017; 45(10): 1665-1674.
21. Dökmen Y. Çalışma, cinsiyet ve cinsiyet rolleri ile ev işleri ve depresyon ilişkisi. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi 1997; 12(39): 39-56.
22. Bektaş M, Özben Ş. Evli bireylerin psikolojik dayanıklılık düzeylerinin bazı sosyo-demografik değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 2016; 14(1): 216-240.
23. Terzi Ş. Üniversite öğrencilerinin psikolojik dayanıklılıkları ve algıladıkları sosyal destek arasındaki ilişki. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi 2008; 9: 1-9.
24. Müftüoğlu O. Yaşasın Hayat (35. Baskı). İstanbul: Doğan Kitap Yayınları, 2005; 89-92.

25. Bond DS, Lyle RM, Tappe MK, Seehafer RS, D'Zurilla T. Moderate aerobic exercise, tai chi and social problem-solving ability in relation to stres. İnternational Journal of Stres Management 2002; 9 (4): 329-343.
26. Gosselin C, Taylor A. Exercise as a stres management tool, 2002; Available at:
[http:// www.isma.org.uk/stressnw/exercise.htm]; accessed on 14. 01. 2007).

27. Plante TG, Coscarelli L, Caputo D, Oppezzo M. Perceived fitness predicts daily coping beter than physical activity or aerobic fitness. İnternational Journal Of Stres Management 2000; 7(3): 181-190.