Main Article Content
Obesity, Down syndrome, Children, Adolescents.
Down syndrome (DS) and obesity in youngsters have attracted the attention of researchers due to the higher risk of overweight and obesity among DS children and adolescents versus the general young population. This study, was conducted in two Riyadh disability centers, which aimed to determine overweight and obesity status in Saudi DS children and adolescents and relate it to dietary and lifestyle factors. The 28 children, 20 adolescents with DS and 17 children, 10 adolescent healthy siblings (control) were assessed for obesity using anthropometric indicators and body composition analysis. Nutritional status and physical activity were determined using questionnaires. Results indicated that DS adolescents were shorter and had higher BMI (P < 0.05) while DS children and siblings were comparable in height and BMI. Using weight-for-age curves, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in DS children was at 25% and 29% respectively whereas DS adolescents had 50% and 10% respectively. Using BMI-for age curves, obesity was higher in DS adolescents versus siblings, while the children had comparable rates. No difference in nutritional status was observed between DS groups and their siblings, except for a few differences in meals, food groups frequency or dietary habits. Adolescents had few significant correlations between anthropometric indices and meals intake. The study confirms higher risk of overweight and obesity in DS adolescents and children, therefore research linking obesity to pre-disposing factors is necessary
1. World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation (WHO technical report series 894). Isbn: 92 4 120894 5. 2016.
2. Hendrix C, Prins M, and Dekkers H. Developmental coordination disorder and overweight and obesity in children: A systematic review. J Obesity Reviews 2014; 155: 408-423.
3. Maiano C, Normand C L, Aime A, and Begarie J. Lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and composition among youth with an intellectual disability: A systematic review. J Research in developmental disabilities 2014; 358: 1914-1926.
4. Bertapelli F, Pitetti K, Agiovlasitis S, and Guerra-Junior G. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with down syndrome—prevalence, determinants, consequences, and interventions: A literature review. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2016; 57: 181-192.
5. Marín A S and Graupera J M X. Nutritional status of intellectual disabled persons with down syndrome. J Nutricion hospitalaria 2011; 265: 1059-1066.
6. Van Gameren-Oosterom H B, Van Dommelen P, Oudesluys-Murphy A M, Buitendijk S E, Van Buuren S, and Van Wouwe J P. Healthy growth in children with down syndrome. 2012; 72: e31079.
7. Cronk C, Crocker A C, Pueschel S M, et al. Growth charts for children with down syndrome: 1 month to 18 years of age. J Pediatrics 1988; 811: 102-110.
8. Bull M J. Health supervision for children with down syndrome. 2011; Am Acad Pediatrics. 393-406.
9. Lucas B, Feucht S, and Nardella M. Cost considerations in providing nutrition and feeding team services for children with special health care needs. J Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999; 999: A130.
10. Nordstrøm M, Retterstøl K, Hope S, and Kolset S O. Nutritional challenges in children and adolescents with down syndrome. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health 2020; 46: 455-464.
11. Hill D L, Parks E P, Zemel B S, Shults J, Stallings V A, and Stettler N. Resting energy expenditure and adiposity accretion among children with down syndrome: A 3-year prospective study. J European journal of clinical nutrition 2013; 6710: 1087-1091.
12. Luke A, Roizen N J, Sutton M, and Schoeller D A. Energy expenditure in children with down syndrome: Correcting metabolic rate for movement. J The Journal of pediatrics 1994; 1255: 829-838.
13. Magge S N, O’Neill K L, Shults J, Stallings V A, and Stettler N. Leptin levels among prepubertal children with down syndrome compared with their siblings. J The Journal of pediatrics 2008; 1523: 321-326.
14. Whitt-Glover M C, O'Neill K L, and Stettler N. Physical activity patterns in children with and without down syndrome. J Pediatric rehabilitation 2006; 92: 158-164.
15. Shields N, Dodd K J, and Abblitt C. Do children with down syndrome perform sufficient physical activity to maintain good health? A pilot study. J Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 2009; 264: 307-320.
16. Izquierdo-Gomez R, Martínez-Gómez D, Villagra A, et al. Associations of physical activity with fatness and fitness in adolescents with down syndrome: The up&down study. J Research in developmental disabilities 2015; 36: 428-436.
17. Esposito P E, MacDonald M, Hornyak J E, and Ulrich D A. Physical activity patterns of youth with down syndrome. J Intellectual developmental disabilities 2012; 502: 109-119.
18. Kosti R I and Panagiotakos D B. The epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents in the world. J Central European journal of public health 2006; 144: 151.
19. Ptomey L, Goetz J, Lee J, Donnelly J, and Sullivan D. Diet quality of overweight and obese adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities as measured by the healthy eating index-2005. J Journal of developmental physical disabilities 2013; 256: 625-636.
20. AbdAllah A M, Raffa S, Alaidaroos T, Obaid R, and Abuznada J. Nutritional status of some children and adolescents with down syndrome in Jeddah. J Life Science Journal 2013; 103: 1310-1318.
21. Samarkandy M M, Mohamed B A, and Al-Hamdan A A. Nutritional assessment and obesity in down syndrome children and their siblings in Saudi Arabia. J Saudi Med J 2012; 3311: 1216-1221.
22. Kuczmarski R J, Ogden C L, Guo S S et al. 2000 CDC growth charts for the united states: Methods and development.Vital Health Stat 2002;246:1-190.
23. Must A, Dallal G E, and Dietz W H Reference data for obesity: 85th and 95th percentiles of body mass index (wt/ht2) and triceps skinfold thickness. J The American journal of clinical nutrition 1991; 534: 839-846.
24. Osaili T M, Attlee A, Naveed H, et al. Physical status and parent-child feeding behaviours in children and adolescents with down syndrome in the united arab emirates. J International journal of environmental research 2019; 1613: 2264.
25. O'Neill K L, Shults J, Stallings V A, and Stettler N. Child-feeding practices in children with down syndrome and their siblings. J The Journal of pediatrics 2005; 1462: 234-238.
26. Cossio-Bolanos M, Vidal-Espinoza R, Lagos-Luciano J, and Gómez-Campos R. Nutritional status in children with intellectual disabilities based on anthropometric profile. J Revista chilena de pediatria 2015; 861: 18.
27. Van Gameren-Oosterom H B, van Dommelen P, Schönbeck Y, Oudesluys-Murphy A M, van Wouwe J P, and Buitendijk S E. Prevalence of overweight in dutch children with down syndrome. J Pediatrics 2012; 1306: e1520-e1526.
28. Sharav T and Bowman T Dietary practices, physical activity, and body-mass index in a selected population of down syndrome children and their siblings. J Clinical Pediatrics 1992; 316: 341-344.
29. Luke A, Sutton M, Schoeller D A, and Roizen N J. Nutrient intake and obesity in prepubescent children with down syndrome. J Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1996; 9612: 1262-1267.
30. Wee S O, Pitetti K H, Goulopoulou S, Collier S R, Guerra M, and Baynard T. Impact of obesity and down syndrome on peak heart rate and aerobic capacity in youth and adults. J Research in developmental disabilities 2015; 36:198-206.
31. Reinehr T, Dobe M, Winkel K, Schaefer A, and Hoffmann D. Obesity in disabled children and adolescents: An overlooked group of patients. J Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 2010; 10715: 268.
32. Marques R C, de Sousa A F, do Monte S J H, Oliveira F E, do Nascimento Nogueira N, and do Nascimento Marreiro D. Zinc nutritional status in adolescents with down syndrome. J Biological trace element research 2007; 1201-3:11.
33. Nogay N H. Nutritional status in mentally disabled children and adolescents: A study from western Turkey. J Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 2013; 292: 614.
34. Matute-Llorente Á, González-Agüero A, Gómez-Cabello A, Vicente-Rodríguez G, and Casajús J A. Decreased levels of physical activity in adolescents with down syndrome are related with low bone mineral density: A cross-sectional study. J BMC endocrine disorders 2013; 131: 22.
35. Grammatikopoulou M G, Manai A, Tsigga M, Tsiligiroglou-Fachantidou A, Galli-Tsinopoulou A, and Zakas A. Nutrient intake and anthropometry in children and adolescents with down syndrome–a preliminary study. J Developmental neurorehabilitation 2008; 114: 260-267.
36. Phillips A C and Holland A J. Assessment of objectively measured physical activity levels in individuals with intellectual disabilities with and without down's syndrome. J PLoS One 2011; 612: e28618.
37. Hauck J L, Ulrich D A. Acute effects of a therapeutic mobility device on physical activity and heart rate in children with down syndrome. J Research quarterly for exercise 2015; 863: 260-266.
38. Izquierdo-Gomez R, Martínez-Gómez D, Acha A, et al. Objective assessment of sedentary time and physical activity throughout the week in adolescents with down syndrome. The up&down study. J Research in developmental disabilities 2014; 352: 482-489.
39. Geliebter A, Astbury N M, Aviram-Friedman R, Yahav E, and Hashim S. Skipping breakfast leads to weight loss but also elevated cholesterol compared with consuming daily breakfasts of oat porridge or frosted cornflakes in overweight individuals: A randomised controlled trial. J Journal of nutritional science 2014; 3.
40. Hammons A J and Fiese B H. Is frequency of shared family meals related to the nutritional health of children and adolescents? J Pediatrics 2011; 1276: e1565-e1574.
41. Ernsberger P. BMI body build, body fatness, and health risks. J Fat Studies 2012; 11: 6-12.