Glycemic, Insulinemic and Trygliceride Responses of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes to Bread Types

Main Article Content

Hidayet Ağören https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8768-8079
Emine Yıldız https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1144-5641
Seyit Mehmet Mercanlıgil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8033-5454

Keywords

Fiber, Bread Types, Insulin, Triglyceride, Glycemic Control

Abstract

Study Aims: Supporting the formation of an adequate and balanced diet and personal healthy eating habits in individuals with diabetes and having fiber in their diets as much as their requirements is an important step in regulating blood glucose levels and preventing complications caused by diabetes. If bread, which is one of our main food sources, is made from flour with high fiber content, and therefore, its glycemic index is lower, if portion control is also provided, it provides support for better control of blood glucose in individuals with diabetes.This study was planned to determine the differences between blood glucose, triglyceride and insulin responses against bread types and to determine the effects of fiber amounts in bread on these difference.Methods:50 people with Type 2 DM between 30-60 years of age, who do not use insulin, whose blood glucose levels are regulated and whose HBA1C levels are ≤ 7% with body mass index at most 29.9 kg / m², was selected on a voluntary basis from patients at Cyprus Famagusta State Hospital Nutrition and Dietetics policlinic. Anthropometric measurements of individuals were taken, 24-hour food consumption records and face-to-face survey method were used to determine nutritional status. Before the study, blood tests were performed to determine the biochemical blood results (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, ALT, AST, Hb A1C). After analyzing energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, total fiber, soluble and insoluble fiber contents of bread varieties in TUBITAK food analysis laboratories, it was determined how many grams of bread contains 50 grams of carbohydrates and given to individuals participating in the study for consumption Results: The average age of the individuals participating in the study was found to be 43.02 ± 9.86 years. 40% of individuals are men and 60% are women. When the blood results were examined, the average HbA1C value of men was 6.4 ± 0.4% and women was 6.3 ± 0.4%. According to the results of the analysis, bread with the highest fiber level (11.47 g / 100g) and the lowest carbohydrate level (37.32 g / 100 g) is diabetic bread. The distributions of the differences between blood sugar values ​​at the time of fasting and 120. minute of different bread varieties were examined. It was observed that the blood sugar value in white, whole wheat and whole grain bread increased at 120 minute, while the blood sugar value decreased in diabetic bread. Insulin difference of diabetes bread being lower than all other bread types were found statistically significant (p <0.001). The triglyceride value of diabetes bread at 120 minutes was lower than the triglyceride value of all other bread types (p <0.001) which found statistically significant. Conclusions:As a result, it shows that bread with high fiber content will contribute significantly to the daily fiber requirement, thereby contributing to the control of postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin and triglyceride levels.

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