How balance training on different types of surfaces effect dynamic balance ability and postural sway of gymnast children?

Main Article Content

Utku Gonener
Ahmet Gonener

Keywords

Dynamic balance, Training, Postural sway, Gymnast, Children

Abstract

Study Objectives: This study aimed to examine the impact of balance training performed on stable and unstable surfaces on the dynamic balance of children. Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 40 female gymnasts (7 years old). The sample was randomly divided into two groups and the first group (122.85±1.14 cm in height, 24.05±1.04 kg in weight) performed unstable surface training while the other group (123.92±1.33 cm in height, 24.95±1.36 kg in weight) performed stable surface training. Eight-week balance training programs were administered three days a week for 40 minutes a day. The pre and post-dynamic balances of the participants were measured with the Tecno-body ProKin PK200 model dynamic balance device. ML, PL, AGP, MS, and AP parameters were assessed, and comparisons were made by the paired t test in SPSS 17.00 package program. Results: While there was a statistically significant difference in all parameters, except for ML values, in the group who performed the balance training on an unstable surface (p <0.05), no statistically significant difference was found in the other group (p> 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that training on unstable surface effect dynamic balance and postural sway in a positive way.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 10 | PDF Downloads 24

References

1. Horak F, Shupert C, Mirka A. Components of postural dyscontrol in the elderly: A review. Neurobiol Aging. 1989; 10(6): 727-738. doi:10.1016/0197-4580(89)90010-9
2. Lim Y, Lee H, Falkmer T et al. Postural control adaptation to optic flow in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Gait Posture. 2019; 72: 175-181. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.06.007
3. Carver S, Kiemel T, Jeka J. Modeling the dynamics of sensory reweighting. Biol Cybern. 2006; 95(2): 123-134. doi:10.1007/s00422-006-0069-5
4. Diener H, Horak F, Nashner L. Influence of stimulus parameters on human postural responses. J Neurophysiol. 1988; 59(6): 1888-1905. doi:10.1152/jn.1988.59.6.1888
5. Rozzi S, Lephart S, Sterner R, et al. Balance training for persons with functionally unstable ankles. J Orthop Sport Phys. 1999; 29(8): 478-486. doi:10.2519/jospt.1999.29.8.478
6. Forssberg H, Nashner L. Ontogenetic development of postural control in man: adaptation to altered support and visual conditions during stance. J Neurosci. 1982; 2(5): 545-552. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.02-05-00545.1982
7. Berger W, Quintern J, Dietz V. Stance and gait perturbations in children: Developmental aspects of compensatory mechanisms. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1985; 61(5): 385-395. doi:10.1016/0013-4694(85)91030-2
8. Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott M. The growth of stability. J Mot Behav. 1985; 17(2): 131-147. doi:10.1080/00222895.1985.10735341
9. Peterson M, Christou E, Rosengren K. Children achieve adult-like sensory integration during stance at 12-years-old. Gait Posture. 2006; 23(4): 455-463. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2005.05.003
10. Cachupe W, Shifflett B, Kahanov L, et al. Reliability of biodex balance system measures. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2001; 5(2): 97-108. doi:10.1207/s15327841mpee0502_3
11. Jazi S, Purrajabi F, Movahedi A, et al. Effect of selected balance exercises on the dynamic balance of children with visual impairments. J Vis Impair Blind. 2012; 106(8): 466-474. doi:10.1177/0145482x1210600803
12. Jiang, GP, Jiao, XB, Wu, SK., et al. Balance, proprioception, and gross motor development of Chinese children aged 3 to 6 years. J Mot Behav. 2017; 50(3): 343-352. doi:10.1080/00222895.2017.1363694
13. Balter S, Stokroos R, Akkermans E, et al. Habituation to galvanic vestibular stimulation for analysis of postural control abilities in gymnasts. Neurosci Lett. 2004; 366(1): 71-75. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2004.05.015
14. Bressel E, Yonker, JC, Kras J, et al. Comparison of static and dynamic balance in female collegiate soccer, basketball, and gymnastics athletes. J Athl Training. 2007; 42(1): 42.
15. Williams D, Murray N, Powell D. Athletes who train on unstable compared to stable surfaces exhibit unique postural control strategies in response to balance perturbations. J Sport Health Sci. 2016; 5(1): 70-76. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2016.01.010
16. Cohen S, Whiting W, McLaine A. Implementation of balance training in a gymnasts conditioning program. Strength Cond J. 2002; 24(2): 60-67. doi:10.1519/00126548-200204000-00017
17. Williams H, Pfeiffer K, O'Neill J et al. Motor skill performance and physical activity in preschool children. Obesity. 2008; 16(6): 1421-1426. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.214
18 Pirauá A, Cavalcante B, Oliveira V et al. Effect of 24‐week strength training on unstable surfaces on mobility, balance, and concern about falling in older adults. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2019; 29(11): 1805-1812. doi:10.1111/sms.13510
19. Garcia C, Barela J, Viana A, et al. Influence of gymnastics training on the development of postural control. Neurosci Lett. 2011; 492(1): 29-32. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2011.01.047
20. Myer G, Ford K, Brent J, et al. The effects of plyometric vs. dynamic stabilization and balance training on power, balance, and landing force in female athletes. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2006; 20(2): 345. doi:10.1519/r-17955.1
21. Davlin C. Dynamic Balance in High Level Athletes. Percept Mot Skills. 2004; 98(3_suppl): 1171-1176. doi:10.2466/pms.98.3c.1171-1176.
22. Vuillerme N, Teasdale N, Nougier V. The effect of expertise in gymnastics on proprioceptive sensory integration in human subjects. Neurosci Lett. 2001; 311(2): 73-76. doi:10.1016/s0304-3940(01)02147-4
23. Vuillerme N, Danion F, Marin L et al. The effect of expertise in gymnastics on postural control. Neurosci Lett. 2001; 303(2): 83-86. doi:10.1016/s0304-3940(01)01722-0
24. Tay Z, Lin W, Kee Y, et al. Trampoline versus resistance training in young adults: effects on knee muscles strength and balance. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2019; 90(4): 452-460. doi:10.1080/02701367.2019.1616045
25. Behm D, Leonard A, Young W, et al. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity with unstable and unilateral exercises. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2005; 19(1): 193. doi:10.1519/1533-4287(2005)19<193:tmeawu>2.0.co;2
26. Hoffman M, Payne V. The effects of proprioceptive ankle disk training on healthy subjects. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1995; 21(2): 90-93. doi:10.2519/jospt.1995.21.2.90
27. Hirase T, Inokuchi S, Matsusaka, N, et al. Effects of a balance training program using a foam rubber pad in community-based older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2015; 38(2): 62-70.
28. Sannicandro I, Cofano G, Rosa RA, et al. Balance training exercises decrease lower-limb strength asymmetry in young tennis players. J. Sports Sci. 2014; 13(2): 397
29. Karimi N, Ebrahimi I, Kahrizi S, et al. Evaluation of postural balance using the biodex balance system in subjects with and without low back pain. PaK J Med Sci. 2008; 24(3): 372.
30. Plisky P, Rauh M, Kaminski T, et al. Star excursion balance test as a predictor of lower extremity ınjury in high school basketball players. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2006; 36(12): 911-919. doi:10.2519/jospt.2006.2244
31. Geldhof E, Cardon G, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Static and dynamic standing balance: test-retest reliability and reference values in 9 to 10 year old children. Eur J Pediatr. 2006; 165(11): 779-786. doi:10.1007/s00431-006-0173-5
32. Castelli L, Stocchi L, Patrignani M, et al. We-Measure: Toward a low-cost portable posturography for patients with multiple sclerosis using the commercial Wii balance board. J Neurol Sci. 2015; 359(1-2): 440-444. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2015.10.016
33. Prosperini L, Castelli L, Sellitto G et al. Investigating the phenomenon of “cognitive-motor interference” in multiple sclerosis by means of dual-task posturography. Gait Posture. 2015; 41(3): 780-785. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.02.002
34. Pizzigalli L, Ahmaidi S, Rainoldi A. Effects of sedentary condition and longterm physical activity on postural balance and strength responses in elderly subjects. Sport Sci Health. 2014; 10(2): 135-141. doi:10.1007/s11332-014-0184-y
35. Godoi D, Barela J. Body sway and sensory motor coupling adaptation in children: Effects of distance manipulation. Dev Psychobiol. 2007;50(1):77-87. doi:10.1002/dev.20272
36.Rinaldi N, Polastri P, Barela J. Age-related changes in postural control sensory reweighting. Neurosci Lett. 2009;467(3):225-229. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.10.042
37. Peterson ML, Christou E, Rosengren KS. Children achieve adult-like sensory integration during stance at 12-years-old. Gait Posture. 2006; 23(4): 455-463.