Main Article Content
Obesity, Nutrition habits, Physical education teacher, Prevention of obesity
Purpose: In this study, it has been aimed to examine the opinions of physical education teachers about obesity and nutrition, which is a growing public health problem. Methods: 13 physical education teachers selected with maximum diversity sampling for the study constituted the sample of the study. Individual interviews were conducted by using semi-structured questionnaires in the research. As a result of the content analysis of the raw data obtained from the semi-structured interview forms, four themes were obtained. Results: These four themes are “The current state of obesity in schools and the view of physical education teachers in nutrition and obesity”, “Obesity Victim Students “reflection on Physical Education lesson”, “Studies carried out at school and the struggle of physical education teachers with malnutrition and obesity”, “The necessity of having a nutrition lesson in the curriculum. “The Future of Nutrition and Obesity” Conclusions: As a result of the research, it has been revealed that Physical Education teachers can play a role in the prevention of obesity and nutrition. However, it was concluded that physical education teachers did not have a planned and programmed strategy to prevent and reduce obesity. The Physical Education teachers who participated in the research stated that the nutrition issues were not sufficiently included in the curriculum and they suggested that they could be taught as a separate lesson.
2- Who (2016) https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight Accessed March 9, 2020.
3- Skinner AC, Skelton JA. Prevalence and trends in obesity and severe obesity among children in the United States, 1999–2012.
JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(6):561–6.
4- de Onis M, Lobstein T. Defining obesity risk status in thegeneral childhood population: which cut-offs should weuse? Int J Pediatr Obes 2010; 5: 458–460.
5- Yayan EH, Çelebioğlu A. Obezojenik Çevre ve Çocukluk Çağı Obezitesine Etkileri. Acıbadem Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2018; 9(2): 90-96.
6- Guo SS, Chumlea WC. Tracking of body mass index in children in relation to overweight in adulthood. Am J Clin Nutr
7- Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, SrinivasanSR, Berenson GS. Inter-relationships among childhood BMI, child-hood height, and adult obesity: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int JObes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28: 10–16.
8- Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Lamb MM, Flegal KM. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007–2008. JAMA. 2010;303:242–249.
9- Dietz WH. Health consequences of obesity in youth: childpredictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 1998; 101: 518–524.
10- Kempf K, Rathmann W, Herder C. Impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2008; 24:427–37
11- Sorof JM, Lai D, Turner J, Poffenbarger T, Portman RJ. Overweight, ethnicity, and the prevalence of hypertension in school-aged children. Pediatrics. 2004; 113(3 pt 1):475-482
12- Triches RM, Giugliani ERJ. Obesity, eating habits and nutritional knowledge among school children. Revista de saúde pública. 2005; 39: 541-547.
13- Tözün M, Sözmen MK, Babaoğlu AB. Türkiye'nin batısında bir üniversitenin sağlık ile ilişkili okullarında beslenme alışkanlıkları ve bunun obezite, fizik aktivite ve yaşam kalitesi ile ilişkisi. Türk Dünyası Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi Halk Sağlığı Dergisi. 2017; 2(1): 1-16.
14- Allison KR, Adlaf EM, Dwyer JJ, Lysy DC, Irving HM. The decline in physical activity among adolescent students. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 2007; 98(2): 97-100.
15- Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Boyce WF, King MA, Pickett W. Overweight and obesity in Canadian adolescents and their associations with dietary habits and physical activity patterns. Journal of adolescent health. 2004; 35(5): 360-367.
16- Lakdawalla D, Philipson T. The growth of obesity and technological change. Economics & Human Biology. 2009; 7(3): 283-293.
17- Gibson LY, Byrne SM, Davis EA, Blair E, Jacoby P, Zubrick SR. The role of family and maternal factors in childhood obesity. Med J Aust. 2007;186:591 – 5.
18- Frederick CB, Snellman K, Putnam RD. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014; 111: 1338–42
19- Levy Z, Petty K. Childhood obesity prevention: Compelling challenge of the twenty-first century. Early Child Development and Care. 2008; 178(6); 609–615. doi:10.1080/03004430600852072
20- Sharma, M. School‐based interventions for childhood and adolescent obesity. Obes Rev. 2006; 7(3): 261-269.
21- Akçay D, Yıldırımlar A. Ebeveynlerin Okul Kantininde Satılan Gıdalar İle İlgili Görüşleri. Balıkesir Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2018; 7(1):14-22.
22- . O’Toole T, Anderson S, Miller C, Guthrie J. Nutrition services and foods and beverages available at school: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. J Sch Health. 2007;77:500- 521.
23- Varman S, Bullen C, Bergh R Van Den, Khogali M. Primary school compliance with school canteen guidelines in Fiji and its association with student obesity. Public Health Action 2013; 3: 81–84.
24- Bramante CT, Thornton RLJ, Bennett WL, et al. Systematic review of natural experiments for childhood obesity prevention and control. Am J Prev Med 2019;56:147-158.
25- Haynos AF O'Donohue WT Universal childhood and adolescent obesity prevention programs:review and critical analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012; 32: 383–399.
26- Jaime PC, Lock, K. Do school based food and nutrition policies improve diet and reduce obesity?. Preventive medicine. 2009; 48(1): 45-53.
27- Özarslan M, Çetin G. Öğrencilerin sağlıklı beslenme hakkındaki düşüncelerinin çizme-yazma tekniği ile belirlenmesi. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2018; 19(1):101-118. DOI: 10.17679/inuefd.293283
28- Worsley A. From nutrients to food literacy. Journal of the Home Economics Institute of Australia. 2015; 22(3): 13-21.
29- Fahlman MM, Dake JA, Mccaughtry N, Martin J: A pilot study to examine the effects of a nutrition intervention on nutrition knowledge, behaviors, and efficacy expectations in middle school children. Journal of School Health 2008, 78:216-222
30- Hall E, Chai W, Albrecht J. A qualitative phenomenological exploration of teachers’ experience with nutrition education. Am J Health Educ. 2016; 47: 136–148.
31- Wallen M, Davis K. Should nutrition education be taught in physical education? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 2010; 81(1): 4-5.
32- Donnelly JE, Greene JL, Gibson CA, Smith BK, Washburn RA, Sullivan DK, DuBose K, Mayo MS, Schmelzle KH, Ryan JJ, Jacobsen DJ, Williams SL. Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC): a randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish overweight and obesity in elementary school children. Prev Med. 2009; 49:336–341.
33- Green H L. Integrating nutrition into the physical education curriculum. Strategies. 2012; 25(6):16-18.
34- Greenleaf C, Weiller K. Perceptions of youth obesity among physical educators. Soc Psychol Educ 2005;8:407–423.
35- Corbin J, Straus A. Basics of qualitative research: Technique and procedure for developing grounded theory. USA: Sage, 2008.
36- Creswell JW. Nitel araştırma yöntemleri: Beş yaklaşıma göre nitel araştırma ve araştırma deseni. M. Bütün ve S. B. Demir (Çev. Edt.). (3. Baskı). Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi,2016
37- Patton MQ. 2014. Nitel araştırma ve değerlendirme yöntemleri. M. Bütün ve S. B. Demir (çev. Edt). Ankara: Pegem Akedemi Yayıncılık, 2014
38- Merriam SB. Nitel araştırma, desen ve uygulama için bir rehber (Trans. Ed. S. Turan). Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık, 2013
39- Yıldırım A, Şimşek H. Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri (8. Baskı). Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık, 2011.
40- Obezite Tanı ve Tedavi Kılavuzu. Türkiye Endokrinoloji ve Metabolizma Derneği. Ankara, 2018.
41- Alemanno A, Ignacio C. “Fat Taxes in Europe A Legal and Policy Analysis Under EU and WTO Law”, European Food and Feed Law Review. 2013; 97-112.
42- Roberto CA, Swinburn B, Hawkes C, et al. Patchy progress on obesity prevention: emerging examples, entrenched barriers, and new thinking. Lancet 2015;385:2400-2409
43- Frieden TR, Dietz W, Collins J. Reducing childhood obesitythrough policy change: acting now to prevent obesity. Health Aff.2010;29:357-363.
44- Kohn M, Rees JM, Brill S, et al. Preventing and treating ado-lescent obesity: a position paper of the Society for AdolescentMedicine. J Adolesc Health 2006;38:784-787.
45- Story M, Nanney MS, Schwartz MB. Schools and obesity prevention: creating school environments and policies to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Milbank Q. 2009;87(1):71–100.
46- Riazi A, Shakoor S, Dundas I, Eiser C, McKenzie SA. Health-related quality of life in a clinical sample of obese children and adolescents. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010;8:134
47- De Beer M, Hofsteenge G, Koot HM et al. Health‐related‐quality‐of‐life in obese adolescents is decreased and inversely related to BMI. Acta Paediatrica. 2007; 96(5):710-714.
48- Hughes AR, Farewell K, Harris D et al. Quality of life in a clinical sample of obese children. Int J Obes. 2007; 31(1):39–44.
49- Pinhas-Hamiel O, Singer S, Pilpel N et al. Health-related quality of life among children and adolescents: associations with obesity. Int J Obes. 2006;30(2): 267-272.
50- Zeller MH, Modi AC. Predictors of health‐related quality of life in obese youth. Obesity. 2006; 14(1): 122-130.
51- Schwimmer J B, Burwinkle TM, Varni JW. Health-related quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents. Jama. 2003;289(14): 1813-1819.
52- Janssen I, Craig WM, Boyce WF, Pickett W. Associations between overweight and obesity with bullying behaviors in school-aged children. Pediatrics. 2004; 113(5): 1187-1194.
53- Pearce M J, Boergers J, Prinstein MJ. Adolescent obesity, overt and relational peer victimization, and romantic relationships. Obes Res. 2002;10(5): 386-393.
54- Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Faibisch L. Perceived stigmatization among overweight African-American and Caucasian adolescent girls. J Adolese Health 1998; 23: 264–270.
55- Swallen KC, Reither EN, Haas SA, Meier AM. Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of life among adolescents: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Pediatrics. 2005; 115(2): 340-347.
56- Griffiths LJ, Parsons TJ, Hill AJ. Self-esteem and quality of life in obese children and adolescents: a systematic review. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2010; 5:282–304.
57- Braet C, Mervielde I, Vandereycken W. Psychologicalaspects of childhood obesity: a controlled study in a clinical andnonclinical sample. J Pediatr Psychol 1997; 22: 59–71.
58- O'Connor JA, Graber KC. Sixth-grade physical education: An acculturation of bullying and fear. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 2014; 85(3):398-408.
59- Peterson JL, Puhl RM, Luedicke J: An experimental investigation of physical education Teachers’ and Coaches’ reactions to weight-based victimization in youth. Psychol Sport and Exer. 2012; 13: 177-185.
60- Fisette JL. Exploring how girls navigate their embodied identities in physical education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy. 2011;16(2): 179-196.
61- Pyle SA, Sharkey J, Yetter G, Felıx E, Furlong MJ, Poston CWS. Psychol Sch 2006: 43: 361–376.
62- Story M, Kaphingst KM, French S. The role of child care settings in obesity prevention. Future Child. 2006;16:143–168
63- Kamath CC, Vickers KS, Ehrlich A, et al. Clinical review: behavioral interventions to prevent childhood obesity: a systematic review and metaanalyses of randomized trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:4606-15.
64- Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan P, Stat M, Rex J. New Moves: a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent girls. Prev Med 2003; 37: 41–51.
65- Bryan C, Broussard L, Bellar D. Effective partnership: how school nurses and physical education teachers can combat childhood obesity. NASN Sch Nurse. 2013;28: 20-23.
66- Perez-Rodrigo C, Aranceta J: Nutrition education in schools: experiences and challenges. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57(suppl 1):S82–S85.
67- World Health Organization. (2016). Consideration of the evidence on childhood obesity for the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity: report of the ad hoc working group on science and evidence for ending childhood obesity, Geneva, Switzerland.
68- Craigie AM, Lake AA, Kelly SA et al.). Tracking of obesity-related behaviours from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review. Maturitas. 2011; 70(3):266-284.