Coping Strategies That Football Players Use During Ramadan Fasting: Turkish Super League Sample

Main Article Content

Ersin Afacan


ramadan, fasting, psychological coping, objective experience, football player


Study Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the self-created coping strategies of Muslim Turkish football players actively playing football in the Turkish Super League about fasting during the month of Ramadan. Because there were very few studies examining the subjective experiences of professional football players about fasting in Ramadan by using a qualitative method. Methods: 10 professional Muslim Turkish football players voluntarily participated in the study. The football players responded to an open-ended question about the coping strategies they applied during Ramadan. The responses given were interpreted in order to organize the subjective experiences of the football players about fasting. In the research, phenomenology design, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was used and inductive content analysis was performed. Results: The coping strategies of the football players were categorized in four dimensions as training, nutrition, lifestyle, and mental changes. These four general dimensions were classified into various sub-themes within themselves. It was also determined that the most frequently used strategies of the football players were the changes in training and nutrition. Conclusion: The coping strategies used by football players are not dependent on a specific scientific or philosophical model since they are based on subjective experiences. It is recommended that professional football players who fast during Ramadan should work with a mental trainer to be able to develop more effective coping strategies appropriate for their specific individual needs.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 18 | PDF Downloads 13


1. Greenglass E.R. Proactive coping and quality of life management. Beyond coping: meeting goals, visions, and challenges. Frydenberg E. London: Oxford University Press 2002; 37-62.
2. Aitken A, Crawford L. Coping with stress: Dispositional coping strategies of project managers. International Journal of Project Management 2007; 25(7), 666-673.
3. Lazurus R.S, Folkman S. Stress appraisal and coping. Springer 1984; New York.
4. Maughan R.J. Fasting and sport: an introduction. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2010; 473-475.
5. Djemai H, Hammad R, Qarra S.A, Dabayebeh I.M. Self-Coping Strategies Among Jordanian Athletes During Ramadan Fasting: A Questionnaire Proposal. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine. 2020. 11(4).
6. Chaouachi A, Leiper, J. B, Chtourou, H, Aziz, A.R, Chamari, K. The effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on athletic performance: recommendations for the maintenance of physical fitness. Journal of Sports Sciences 2012; 30 (sup1), 53-73.
7. Armstrong L.E. Nutritional strategies for football: Counteracting heat, cold, high altitude, and jet lag. Journal of Sports Sciences 2006; 24: 723–740.
8. Zarrouk N, Hammouda O, Latiri I, Adala H, Bouhlel E, Rebai H, Dogui M. Ramadan fasting does not adversely affect neuromuscular performances and reaction times in trained karate athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2016; 13(1), 1-10.
9. Ma Q, Yang C, Wu R, Wu M, Liu W, Dai Z, Li Y. How experiences affect psychological responses during supervised fasting: a preliminary study. Frontiers in Psychology 2021; 12. 12: 651760.
10. Kirkendall D.T, Chaouachi A, Aziz A.R, Chamari, K. Strategies for maintaining fitness and performance during Ramadan. Journal of Sports Sciences; 2012; 30(sup1), 103-108.
11. Bogdan R.C, Biklen S.K. Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Allyn and Bacon 1992; London.
12. Yıldırım A, Şimşek H. Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Seçkin Yayıncılık 2013; Ankara.
13. Maxwell J. Understanding and validity in qualitative research. Harvard Educational Review 1992; 62(3), 279-301.
14. Eisenhart M.A, Howe K.R. Validity in educational research. In M. LeCompte, W. Millroy, J. Preissle (Eds.), The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education 1992; San Diego: Academic Press. 642-680.
15. Shenton A.K. Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information 2004; 22(2), 63-75.
16. Roy J, Hwa O.C, Singh R, Aziz A.R, Jin C.W. Self-generated coping strategies among Muslim athletes during Ramadan fasting. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine 2011, 10(1), 137-144.
17. Coutts A.J, Chamari K, Rampinini E, Impellizzeri F.M. Monitoring training in football: measuring and periodising training. : From Training to Performance in Soccer. Della A.Paris 2008; France: De BoeckUniversite; 242-263.
18. Atkinson G, Reilly, T. Circadian variation in sports performance. Sports Medicine 1996; 21, 292–312
19. Leiper J.B, Molla A.M. Effects on health of fluid restriction during fasting in Ramadan. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 57 (suppl.2), 30-38.
20. Garthe I, Raastad, T, Refsnes, P. E, Sundgot-Borgen J. Effect of nutritional intervention on body composition and performance in elite athletes. European Journal of Sport Science 2013; 13(3), 295-303.
21. Laraqui C.H, Tripodi D, Laraqui O, Rahhali A, Caubert A, Daoudi F, Mounassif M, Curtes J.P, Verger C. The effects of fasting and of the quality of sleep on work during the month of Ramadan. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de SecuriteSociale 2001; 62, 115-120.
22. Roky R, Herrera, C.P, Ahmed, Q. Sleep in athletes and the effects of Ramadan. Journal of Sports Sciences 2012; 30(sup1), 75-84.
23. Wilson D, Drust B, Reilly T. Is diurnal lifestyle altered during Ramadan in professional Muslim athletes? Biological Rhythm Research 2009; 40, 385-397.
24. Maughan R.J, Bartagi Z, Dvorak J, Zerguini Y. Dietary intake and body composition of football players during the holy month of Ramadan. Journal of Sports Sciences 2008; 26(Suppl.3), 29–38.
25. Chamari K, Haddad, M, Wong, D. P, Dellal, A, Chaouachi, A. Injury rates in professional soccer players during Ramadan. Journal of Sports Sciences 2012; 30(sup1), 93-102.