Main Article Content
TEM, FE-SEM, FT-IR, XRD, AuNP, MIC
In this research, an easy and environmentally friendly method was presented for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with Allium ampeloprasum (AA) leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The maximum absorption peak was found to be around 535 nm with ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer. When the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzes were examined, it was seen that the crystal size of the synthesized AuNPs was between 6.02-17.36 nm and their shape was mostly spherical. The size of the crystal structures of AuNPs was calculated as 22.76 nm from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis data. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy results showed that phenolics, aromatic compounds and proteins were effective in the reduction and stabilization of AA-AuNPs. The average size of AuNPs was determined as 96.46 nm with Zetasizer. It was determined that AuNPs have a very strong inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Candida albicans by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method.
2. Molnár Z, Bódai V, Szakacs G et al. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles by thermophilic filamentous fungi. Scientific Reports 2018; 8: 3943.
3. González-Ballesteros N, Prado-López S, Rodríguez-González JB, Lastra M, Rodríguez-Argüelles MC. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using brown algae Cystoseira baccata: Its activity in colon cancer cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2017; 153: 190-198.
4. Javaid A, Oloketuyi SF, Khan MM, Khan F. Diversity of Bacterial Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles. BioNanoScience 2017; 8(1): 43-59.
5. Mohmed AA, Saad E, Fouda A, Elgamal MS, Salem SS. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus sp. and evaluation of their antibacterial and cytotoxicity. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International 2017; 11(2):1-12.
6. Kumar PV, Kala SMJ, Prakash KS. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Croton Caudatus Geisel leaf extract and their biological studies. Mater Lett 2019; 236(1): 19-22.
7. Paidari S, Ibrahim SA. Potential application of gold nanoparticles in food packaging: a mini review. Gold Bull 2021; 54: 31-36.
8. Elahi N, Kamali M, Baghersad MH. Recent biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles: A review. Talanta 2018; 184: 537-556.
9. Kong F-Y, Zhang J-W, Li R-F, Wang Z-X, Wang W-J, Wang W. Unique Roles of Gold Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery, Targeting and Imaging Applications. Molecules 2017; 22(9):1445.
10. Jiménez-Pérez ZE, Singh P, Kim Y-J et al. Applications of Panax ginseng leaves-mediated gold nanoparticles in cosmetics relation to antioxidant, moisture retention, and whitening effect on B16BL6 cells. J Ginseng Res 2018; 42(3): 327-333.
11. Krishnaswamy K, Vali H, Orsat V. Value-adding to grape waste: Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. J Food Eng 2014; 142: 210-220.
12. Awad MA, Eisa NE, Virk P et al. Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization, Cytotoxicity, and Anti-bacterial Activities. Mater Lett 2019; 256: 126608.
13. Ramakrishna M, Rajesh Babu D, Gengan RM, Chandra S, Nageswara Rao G. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using marine algae and evaluation of their catalytic activity. J Nanostructure Chem 2015; 6(1): 1-13.
14. Singh P, Pandit S, Garnæs J et al. Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles from Cannabis sativa (industrial hemp) and their capacity for biofilm inhibition. Int J Nanomedicine 2018; 13: 3571-3591.
15. Kumar KP, Paul W, Sharma CP. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles with Zingiber officinale extract: Characterization and blood compatibility. Process Biochemistry 2011; 46(10): 2007-2013.
16. Aromal SA, Philip D. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Trigonella foenum-graecum and its size-dependent catalytic activity. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2012; 97: 1-5.
17. Wang L, Xu J, Yan Y, Liu H, Karunakaran T, Li F. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles from Scutellaria barbata and its anticancer activity in pancreatic cancer cell (PANC‐1). Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology 2019; 47(1): 1617-1627.
18. Keskin C, Atalar NM, Baran MF, Baran A. Environmentally Friendly Rapid Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles from Artemisia absinthium Plant Extract and Application of Antimicrobial Activities. Iğdır University Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology 2021; 11(1): 365-375.
19. Kim S, Kim D-B, Jin W et al. Comparative studies of bioactive organosulphur compounds and antioxidant activities in garlic (Allium sativum L.), elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.). Natural Product Research 2017; 32(10): 1193-1197.
20. Ambika S, Sundrarajan M. Antibacterial behaviour of Vitex negundo extract assisted ZnO nanoparticles against pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 2015; 146: 52-57.
21. Elshikh M, Ahmed S, Funston S et al. Resazurin-based 96-well plate microdilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of biosurfactants. Biotechnol Lett 2016; 38(6): 1015-1019.
22. Baran A, Keskin C. Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Anti-Microbial Applications: Academic Studies in Science and Mathematics – II, Ankara: Gece Academy, 2020; 1-18.
23. Patra JK, Kwon Y, Baek K-H. Green biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by onion peel extract: Synthesis, characterization and biological activities. Adv Powder Technol 2016; 27(5): 2204-2213.
24. Chandran K, Song S, Yun S-I. Effect of size and shape controlled biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their mode of interactions against food borne bacterial pathogens. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 2019; 12: 1994-2006.
25. Anuradha J, Abbasi T, Abbasi SA. An eco-friendly method of synthesizing gold nanoparticles using an otherwise worthless weed pistia (Pistia stratiotes L.). J Adv Res 2015; 6(5): 711-720.
26. Murugan K, Benelli G, Panneerselvam C et al. Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes. Exp Parasitol 2015; 153: 129-138.
27. Punuri JB, Sharma P, Sibyala S, Tamuli R, Bora U. Piper betle-mediated green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles. International Nano Letters 2012; 2: 18.
28. Nishanthi R, Malathi S, John Paul S, Palani P. Green synthesis and characterization of bioinspired silver, gold and platinum nanoparticles and evaluation of their synergistic antibacterial activity after combining with different classes of antibiotics. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019; 96: 693-707.
29. Aromal SA, Vidhu VK, Philip D. Green synthesis of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles using Macrotyloma uniflorum. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2012; 85(1): 99-104.
30. Suman TY, Radhika Rajasree SR, Ramkumar R, Rajthilak C, Perumal P. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2014; 118: 11-16.
31. Paul B, Bhuyan B, Dhar Purkayastha D, Dey M, Dhar SS. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Pogestemon benghalensis (B) O. Ktz. leaf extract and studies of their photocatalytic activity in degradation of methylene blue. Mater Lett 2015; 148: 37-40.
32. Sadeghi B, Mohammadzadeh M, Babakhani B. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Stevia rebaudiana leaf extracts: Characterization and their stability. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 2015; 148: 101-106.
33. Paul B, Bhuyan B, Purkayastha DD, Vadivel S, Dhar SS. One-pot green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and studies of their anticoagulative and photocatalytic activities. Materials Letters 2016; 185: 143-147.
34. Olsvik Ø, Wasteson Y, Lund A, Hornes E. Pathogenic Escherichia coli found in food. Int J Food Microbiol 1991; 12(1): 103-113.
35. Middleton SJ, Coley A, Hunter JO. The role of faecal Candida albicans in the pathogenesis of food-intolerant irritable bowel syndrome. Postgrad Med J 1992; 68(800): 453-454.
36. Le Loir Y, Baron F, Gautier M. Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning. Genet Mol Res 2003; 2 (1): 63-76.
37. Hitosugi M, Hamada K, Misaka K. Effects of Bacillus subtilis var. natto products on symptoms caused by blood flow disturbance in female patients with lifestyle diseases. Int J Gen Med 2015; 8: 41-46.
38. Mostafa AA, Al-Askar AA, Almaary KS, Dawoud TM, Sholkamy EN, Bakri MM. Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts against bacterial strains causing food poisoning diseases. Saudi J Biol Sci 2018; 25(2): 361-366.
39. Sunderam V, Thiyagarajan D, Lawrence AV, Mohammed SSS, Selvaraj A. In-vitro antimicrobial and anticancer properties of green synthesized gold nanoparticles using Anacardium occidentale leaves extract. Saudi J Biol Sci 2019; 26(3): 455-459.
40. Vijayakumar S, Vinayagam R, Anand MAV et al. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticle using Eclipta alba and its antidiabetic activities through regulation of Bcl-2 expression in pancreatic cell line. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2020; 58: 101786.
41. Bhau BS, Ghosh S, Puri S, Borah D, Sarmah DK, Khan R. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Nepenthes khasiana and antimicrobial assay. Adv Mater Lett 2015; 6(1): 55-58.