Is there a perfect way for food security measurement? Evaluation for Turkey

Main Article Content

Berkay Keskin
Nevin Demirbaş

Keywords

Food security, Food insecurity, Food security measurement, Turkey

Abstract

Even though food security is not a new topic, it is currently a global issue which is a matter of great concern especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. Discussions are ongoing as to how food security can be measured effectively due to the multidimensionality of the issue. The main objective of this study was to review the major methods used to measure food security and evaluate their applicability for Turkey. In this study, case studies in which these methods were applied as well as the possibilities for using these in Turkey were discussed. Although Turkey is among upper-middle income countries, it is a critical country for food security measurement due to the inequity in income distribution and socio-economic differences between the regions. For this reason, instead of applying solitary macro measurements, such as FAO method, using them along with a variety of micro measurements is considered to be more effective for Turkey. This study provides recommendations for governments and social organizations for developing policies and programs focused on solving public problems related to food security both in Turkey and other similar countries.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 35 |

References

1. Hubbard LJ, Hubbard C. Food security in the United Kingdom: External supply risks. Food Policy 2013; 43: 142–147.
2. Maggio A, Criekinge TV, Malingreau JP. Global Food Security 2030: Assessing trends with a view to guiding future EU policies. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2015.
3. FAO. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020. http://www.fao.org/3/ca9692en/ca9692en.pdf (accessed 12 March 2021), 2020.
4. Demirbaş N, Atış E, Türkiye Tarımında Gıda Güvencesi Sorununun Buğday Örneğinde İrdelenmesi. Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 2005; 42 (1): 179-190.
5. Capone R, Bilali HE, Debs P, Cardone G, Driouech N. Food System Sustainability and Food Security: Connecting the Dots. Journal of Food Security 2014; 2(1): 13-22.
6. Fasoyiro SB, Taiwo KA. Strategies for Increasing Food Production and Food Security in Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information 2012; 13(4): 338-355.
7. Godfray HCJ, Garnett T. Food security and sustainable intensification. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2014; 369(1639): 20120273.
8. FAO. The state of food and Agriculture: Climate change, agriculture and food security, Rome, ISBN 978-92-5-109374-0, pp. 173, 2016.
9. Scardigno A, Capone R, El Bilali H, Cardone G. Water-food security nexus in Middle East and North Africa Region: an exploratory assessment. New medit: Mediterranean journal of economics, agriculture and environment= Revue méditerranéenne d'economie, agriculture et environment 2017; 16(4): 31-38.
10. Laborde D, Martin W, Swinnen J, Vos R. COVID-19 risks to global food security. Science 2020; 369(6503): 500-502.
11. CIHEAM. Feeding Expo Milano with Mediterranean perspectives, Watch Letter No: 32, 2015.
12. Kennedy E. Qualitative Measures of Food Insecurity and Hunger. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y4249E/y4249e0c.htm (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2002.
13. Perez-Escamilla R, Gubert MB, Rogers B, Hromi-Fiedler A. Food security measurement and governance: Assessment of the usefulness of diverse food insecurity indicators for policy makers. Global Food Security 2017; 14: 96-104.
14. Cafiero C, Viviani S, Nord M. Food security measurement in a global context: The food insecurity experience scale. Measurement 2018; 116: 146-152.
15. Tuholske C, Andam K, Blekking J, Evans T, Caylor K. Comparing measures of urban food security in Accra, Ghana. Food Security 2020; 1-15.
16. Welch JR, Ferreira AA, Souza MCD, Coimbra Jr CE. Food profiles of indigenous households in Brazil: results of the first national survey of indigenous peoples’ health and nutrition. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 2021; 60(1): 4-24.
17. Öztürk M, Gür F, Jongerden JP. Food insecurity in the age of neoliberalism in Turkey and its neighbors. In Food Insecurity: A Matter of Justice, Sovereignty, and Survival (pp. 77-95). Routledge, 2020.
18. Zarei M. The water-energy-food nexus: a holistic approach for resource security in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey. Water-Energy Nexus 2020; 3: 81–94.
19. Ağaçayak T, Keyman F. Water and Food Security in Turkey in a Changing Climate. IPC Policy Brief, March 2018, 2018.
20. Işık S, Özbuğday FC. The impact of agricultural input costs on food prices in Turkey: A case study. Agricultural Economics 2021; 67(3): 101-110.
21. Destek MA, Sinha A, Sarkodie SA. The relationship between financial development and income inequality in Turkey. Journal of Economic Structures 2020; 9(1): 11.
22. Osinubi TT, Olomola PA. Globalisation, income inequality and poverty relationships: evidence from Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey. Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences 2021; 37(2): 179-208.
23. FAO. Measurement and Assessment of Food Deprivation and Undernutrition. International Scientific Symposium, 26-28 June, Rome, 2002.
24. SPO (State Planning Organization of Turkey). Ulusal Gıda ve Beslenme Stratejisi Çalışma Grubu Raporu, Ankara, 2001.
25. FAO. Food Security. Policy Brief, Issue 2, June 2006 http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/faoitaly/documents/pdf/pdf_Food_Security_Cocept_Note.pdf (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2006.
26. Defra. UK Food Security Assessment: Our Approach. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, 2009.
27. FAO. Food Security Statistics. http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/ess-fs/en/ (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2012a.
28. UN-HLTF. Food and Nutrition Security: Comprehensive Framework for Action. Summary of the Updated Comprehensive Framework for Action (UCFA),United Nations System High Level Task Force on Global Food Security (HLTF). Rome/Genève/New York, 2011.
29. CFS. Coming to terms with terminology: Food security, Nutrition security, Food security and nutrition, Food and nutrition security, Committee on World Food Security (CFS), Thirty-ninth Session, Rome, 2012.
30. Pangaribowo EH, Gerber N, Torero M. Food and nutrition security indicators: a review, ZEF Working Paper 108, Bonn, 2013.
31. WHO. Food Security. http://www.who.int/trade/glossary/story028/en/ (accessed: 10 February 2021), 2012.
32. FAO. The state of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018. http://www.fao.org/state-of-food-security-nutrition/en/ (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2018.
33. Food For The Hungry. Food Utilization. http://www.fh.org/do/food/utilization (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2011.
34. SPO. (State Planning Organization of Turkey) Ulusal Gıda ve Beslenme Stratejisi Çalışma Grubu Raporu (Ulusal Gıda ve Beslenme Eylem Planı I. Aşama Çalışması Eki İle). Yayın No: 2670, Ankara, 2003.
35. SPO. (State Planning Organization of Turkey ) Türkiye’de Yoksulluğun Ölçülmesi ve Sosyo-Ekonomik Yapılarla İlişkisi. Uzmanlık Tezleri, Ankara, 1997.
36. Pekcan G. Food and Nutrition Policies: What’s Being Done In Turkey. Public Health Nutrition 2006; 9 (1A): 158-162.
37. Ministry of Health (Turkey). Türkiye Beslenme ve Sağlık Araştırması 2010: Beslenme Durumu ve Alışkanlıklarının Değerlendirilmesi Sonuç Raporu. Sağlık Bakanlığı Yayın No: 931, Ankara, 2014.
http://www.sagem.gov.tr/TBSA_Beslenme_Yayini.pdf (accessed: 11 March 2021).
38. Istanbul Provincial Directorate of Health. 2010 Türkiye Beslenme ve Sağlık Araştırmasının Saha Uygulaması Tamamlandı.
http://www.istanbulsaglik.gov.tr/w/sb/egt/pdf/tbsa.pdf (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2012.
39. Turkish Statistical Institute. Gelir ve Yaşam Koşulları Araştırması 2019. https://tuikweb.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=33820 (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2020.
40. Cafiero C, Melgar‐Quiñonez HR, Ballard TJ, Kepple AW. Validity and reliability of food security measures. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2014; 1331(1): 230-248.
41. Leroy JL, Ruel M, Frongillo EA, Harris J, Ballard TJ. Measuring the food access dimension of food security: A critical review and mapping of indicators. Food and nutrition bulletin 2015; 36(2): 167-195.
42. Anonymous Global Food Security Index 2014. Economist Intelligence Unit, 37 p., New York, http://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com (accessed: 12 January 2021), 2014.
43. FAO. How Does FAO Measure Hunger. http://www.fao.org/hunger/en/ (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2012b.
44. Naiken L. FAO Methodology for Estimating The Prevalence of Undernourishment. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y4249E/y4249e06.htm (accessed: 11 June 2018), 2002.
45. Eraktan G, Yelen B. Üretici, Tüketici ve Yoksulluk Olgusu Yönünden Türkiye’de Gıda Güvencesi. 10. Ulusal Tarım Ekonomisi Kongresi. 5-7 Eylül. s.121-128, Konya, 2012.
46. Cunningham L. “Assessing The Contribution of Aquaculture to Food Security: A Survey of Methodologies”. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 1010, 2005.
47. Omotesho OA, Muhammad-Lawal A. Optimal Food Plan for Rural Households? Food Security in Kwara State, Nigeria: The Goal Programming Approach. Journal Agriculture, Biotechnology and Sustainable Development 2010; 2(1): 007-014.
48. Smith LC. The Use of Household Expenditure Surveys for the Assessment of Food Insecurity. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y4249E/y4249e08.htm (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2002.
49. Altman M, Hart T, Jacobs PT. Household food security status in South Africa. Agricultural Economics Research Policy and Practice in Southern Africa (Agrekon) 2009; 48(4): 345-361.
50. Smith CL, Alderman H, Aduayom D. Food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa: new estimates from household expenditure surveys. International Food Policy Research Institiute. Research Report 146, 2006.
51. Turkish Statistical Institute. Tüketim Harcamaları. Yoksulluk ve Gelir Dağılımı. Sorularla Resmi İstatistikler Dizisi- 6. www.tuik.gov.tr/IcerikGetir.do?istab_id=156 (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2008.
52. Turkish Statistical Institute. Hanehalkı Tüketim Harcaması https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Hanehalki-Tuketim-Harcamasi-2019-33593 (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2020.
53. Luzzi AF. Individual Food Intake Survey Methods. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y4249E/y4249e0a.htm (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2002.
54. Migotto M, Davis B, Carletto G, Beegle K. Measuring Food Security Using Respondents’ Perception of Food Consumption Adequacy. ESA Working Paper No. 05-10, 2005.
55. Rose D, Oliveira V. Nutrient Intakes of Individuals from Food-Insufficient Households in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 1997; 87 (12): 1956-1961.
56. Babatunde RO, Omotosho OA, Sholotan OS. Factors Influencing Food Security Status of Rural Farming Households in North Central Nigeria. Agricultural Journal 2007; 2(3): 351- 357.
57. Sharkey JR, Nalty C, Johnson CM, Dean WR. Children’s very low food security is associated with increased dietary intakes in energy, fat, and added sugar among Mexican-origin children (6-11 y) in Texas border Colonias. BMC Pediatrics 2012; Volume 12(1): 16.
58. Shetty P. Measures of Nutritional Status From Anthropometric Survey Data. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/Y4249E/y4249e0b.htm (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2002.
59. Mason J. Measuring hunger and malnutrition, Paper presented in the Proceedings of the Measurement and Assessment of Food Deprivation and Undernutrition. International Scientific Symposium in Rome. 26–28 June 2002. Rome, Italy: FAO, 2003.
60. Mukhopadhyay DK, Biswas AB. Food security and anthropometric failure among tribal children in Bankura. West Bengal. Indian Pediatrics 2011; 48 (4): 311-314.
61. Metallinos- Katsaras E, Sherry B, Kallio J. Food insecurity is associated with overweight in children younger than 5 years of age. Journal of the American Dietetics Association 2009; 109 (10): 1790-1794.
62. Tontisirin K. Issues In The Assessment of Food Security and Undernutrition. The Fifth International Conference On Dietary Assessment Methods. 26-29 January, Thailand, 2003.
63. Ministry of Health (Turkey). Türkiye Beslenme ve Sağlık Araştırması 2019 https://hsgm.saglik.gov.tr/depo/birimler/saglikli-beslenme-hareketli-hayat-db/Yayinlar/kitaplar/TBSA_RAPOR_KITAP_20.08.pdf (accessed: 12 March 2021), 2019.
64. Riely F, Mock N, Cogill B, Bailey L, Kenefick E. Food Security Indicators and Framework for Use in Monitoring and Evaluation of Food Aid Programs. Washington DC: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance. Academy for Educational Development, USA, 1999.
65. Derrickson JP, Fisher AG, Anderson J. The Core Food Security Module Scale Measure Is Valid and Reliable When Used with Asians and Pacific Islanders. The Journal Of Nutrition 2000; 130 (11): 2666–2674.
66. Matheson DM, Varady J, Varady A, Killen JD. Household Food Security and Nutritional Status of Hispanic Children in the Fifth Grade. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 76 (1): 210–217.
67. Pérez-Escamilla R, Segall-Corrêa AM, Kurdian Maranha L, Sampaio MDFA, Marín-León L, Panigassi G. An adapted version of the US Department of Agriculture Food Insecurity module is a valid tool for assessing household food insecurity in Campinas, Brazil. The Journal of nutrition 2004; 134(8): 1923-1928.
68. Álvarez MC, Estrada A, Montoya EC, Melgar-Quiñónez H. Validation of A Household Food Security Scale in Antioquia, Colombia. Salud pública Méx 2006; 48(6): 474-481.
69. Hackett M, Zubieta AC, Hernandez K, Melgar-Quiñonez H. Food insecurity and household food supplies in rural Ecuador. Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición 2007; 57 (1): 10-17.
70. Rafiei M, Nord M, Sadeghizadeh A, Entezari MH. Assessing the Internal Validity of a Household Survey-Based Food Security Measure Adapted For Use in Iran. Nutrition Journal 2009; 8(28): 1-11.
71. Gubert MB, Benício MHDA, da Silva JP, da Costa Rosa TE, dos Santos SM, dos Santos LMP. Use of a Predictive Model for Food Insecurity Estimates in Brazil, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición 2010; 60 (2): 119-125.
72. Aidoo R, Mensah JO, and Tuffour T. Determinants of Household Food Security in the Sekyere-Afram Plains District of Ghana. 1st Annual International Interdisciplinary Conference, AIIC 2013, 24-26 April, Azores, Portugal 2013.
73. Eştürk Ö. 2013. Türkiye’de Gıda Güvencesi Sorunu ve Hanehalkı Gıda Güvencesi Ölçümü: Adana İli Örneği. Phd Thesis. Tarım Ekonomisi Anabilim Dalı, Adana.
74. Eştürk Ö, Ören MN. Impact of household socio-economic factors on food security: case of Adana. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2014; 13(1): 1-6.
75. FAO. Measuring Food and Nutrition Security: What Has Been Your Experience. Summary of Discussion no.74. Global Forum on Food Security and Nutrition. 2-22 November, Rome, 2011.
76. Keskin B, Demirbaş N. Gıda Güvencesi ve Hesaplama Yöntemleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme: Kısıtlar ve Öneriler. 10. Ulusal Tarım Ekonomisi Kongresi. 5-7 Eylül, Konya, s.900-908, 2012.
77. IFPRI. Middle East and North Africa.
http://www.ifpri.org/book-6959/ourwork/researcharea/middle-eastand-north-africa (accessed: 11 March 2021), 2012.
78. Pinstrup- Andersen P. Food Security: Definition and Measurement. Food Security 2009; 1, 5-7.
79. Cafiero C. Advances in hunger measurement: Traditional FAO methods and recent innovations, FAO, ESS Working Paper No. 14-04, August 2014, 2014.
80. Quinonez, HM, Hackett M. Measuring household food security: the global experience, Rev. Nutr., Campinas 2008; 21(Supplement): 27-37.
81. Ibok OW, Osbahr H, Srinivasan C. Verifying the Relevance of a Vulnerability to Food Insecurity Index in Practice for Households in South Nigeria, Journal of Poverty 2020; 1-29.