Association of the Type, Amount and Frequency of Milk Feeding with Anthropometric Growth Indicators in Infants
Main Article Content
Breastfeeding, Stunting, Wasting, underweight, Growth Indicators, Z-Score
Infant feeding practices during early days of life are considered crucial as they may have an impact on growth and development later in life. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 infants aged 0-4 months, in Lahore, Pakistan to find out the association between milk feeding practices and anthropometric growth indices. Data was collected through interviewer administered questionnaire for 24-hour dietary recall and WHO growth charts for anthropometric assessment. The average breastfeeding time for normal weight for length infants was significantly (p=0.014) higher (9.850±3.907) than wasted infants. Infants with normal length for age were breastfeed for significantly (p=0.009) longer time (9.768±3.993) as compared to stunted infants (8.000±3.045). Normal weight for age infants had significantly (p=0.015) shorter breastfeeding interval (83.767±37.228) as compared to underweight infants (103.750±25.527). Infant milk feeding practices was found to be linked to the nutritional status. Breastfed infants had better growth outcomes as compared to non-breastfed. Promotion of breastfeeding practices may warrant good nutritional status in infants and thus can be regarded as one of the strategies for tackling the short term and long-term burden of malnutrition.
2. Organization WH. Implementation guidance: protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding in facilities providing maternity and newborn services: the revised baby-friendly hospital initiative. (2018).
3. UNICEF (October 2019) Infant and young child feeding.
4. (2018) Pakistan National Nutrition Survey. Aga Khan University, Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations & Coordination (Pakistan), Pakistan Medical Research Council, UK Aid Direct, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). .
5. Kim EJ, Lee NM, Chung S-H. A retrospective study on the effects of exclusive donor human milk feeding in a short period after birth on morbidity and growth of preterm infants during hospitalization. Medicine, (2017); 96(35).
6. Prell C, Koletzko B. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding: recommendations on infant nutrition. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, (2016); 113(25): 435.
7. Organization WH WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: methods and development. Chapter: Book Name. 2006 of publication; World Health Organization.
8. Organization WH. Training course on child growth assessment. Geneva: WHO, (2008); p17-25.
9. Organization WH Infant and young child feeding: model chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals. Chapter: Book Name. 2009 of publication; World Health Organization.
10. Unicef (2018) Improving child nutrition. The achievable imperative for global progress. 2013. New York: UNICEF; 2016.
11. Sohail J, Khaliq A. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF MOTHERS REGARDING COLOSTRUM FEEDING TO NEWBORNS IN RURAL PAKISTAN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. Khyber Medical University Journal, (2017); 9(4).
12. Garber MD, Schroeder AR, Flaherman V. Re: Balancing Breastfeeding Promotion. Pediatrics, (2017); 140(5).
13. Organization WH (2016) Complementary Feeding. Report of the Global Consultation, and Summary of Guiding Principles for Complementary Feeding of the Breastfed Child. WHO, Geneva, 2003.
14. Asim M, Nawaz Y. Child malnutrition in Pakistan: evidence from literature. Children, (2018); 5(5): 60.
15. Khan GN, Turab A, Khan MI, Rizvi A, Shaheen F, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of malnutrition among children under-five years in Sindh, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study. BMC nutrition, (2016); 2(1): 69.
16. Organization WH (2017) Department of Nutrition for Health and Development. The WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. Geneva.
17. Walson JL, Berkley JA. The impact of malnutrition on childhood infections. Current opinion in infectious diseases, (2018); 31(3): 231.
18. Wallingford JC, Barber C. A Review of Studies on the Growth of Infants Fed Infant Formula. Current Developments in Nutrition, (2019); 3(9): nzz095.
19. Salvatore S, Savino F, Singendonk M, Tabbers M, Benninga MA, et al. Thickened infant formula: what to know. Nutrition, (2018); 4951-56.
20. Azad MB, Vehling L, Chan D, Klopp A, Nickel NC, et al. Infant feeding and weight gain: separating breast milk from breastfeeding and formula from food. Pediatrics, (2018); 142(4).
21. Vail B, Prentice P, Dunger DB, Hughes IA, Acerini CL, et al. Age at weaning and infant growth: primary analysis and systematic review. The Journal of pediatrics, (2015); 167(2): 317-324. e311.