Main Article Content
Lactic Acid, Football, Testosterone, Cortisol, Hormones
Study Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effects of lactate elimination and saliva β‐endorphin (β-End) levels on the decrease in shot and sprint performances in the last period of a soccer match, and changes in saliva cortisol and testosterone levels during the match and their relationship to performance parameters. Methods: Twenty-two trained amateur soccer players performed the 90 minutes soccer match, while saliva β-End, testosterone, cortisol, blood lactate, and glucose measurements were obtained pre-match (M1), after 1st half (M2), and after the 2nd half (M3). Sprint and shot performances were assessed after warm-up and match play and after the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR-1) test. Lactate elimination was evaluated with the Yo-Yo IR-1. Results: Soccer match-play elevated some individual β-End levels between M1 and M3 (an increase of %25) but overall differences between M1, M2, and M3 were not significant (%3.34 increase from M1 to M2, %1.12 increase from M1 to M3, and %2.17 decrease from M2 to M3). M3 testosterone levels significantly increased above basal (p < 0.01) and M2 levels (p < 0.001). Moreover, β-End levels and lactate elimination speeds were not significantly correlated with sprint and shot performance at M3 (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that β‐End and lactate elimination is not effective on the differences in shot and sprint performances after exercise. Therefore, future studies will appropriate for the examination of β‐End and other hormone levels to understand the exact mechanisms involved in different levels of soccer players.
2. Bhasin S. Regulation of testicular function. In The Encyclopedia Of Sports Medicine an IOC Medical Commission Publication. ed. The Endocrine System in Sports and Exercise, Volume XI. USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2005:298.
3. Ghayee HK, Auchus RJ. Basic concepts and recent developments in human steroid hormone biosynthesis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2007;8(4):289-300.
4. Cunha GS, Ribeiro JL, Oliveira AR. Levels of beta-endorphin in response to exercise and overtraining. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2008;52(4):589-98.
5. Tunn S, Mollmann H, Barth J, et al. Simultaneous measurement of cortisol in serum and saliva after different forms of cortisol administration. Clin Chem; 1992;38:1491-1494.
6. Viru A, Viru M. Biochemical Monitoring of Sport Training. USA: Human Kinetics Pub; 2001:104-106.
7. Slivka DR, Hailes WS, Cuddy JS, et al. Effects of 21 days of intensified training on markers of overtraining. J Strength Cond R. 2010;24(10):2604-2612.
8. Viru A, Tendzegolskis Z. Plasma endorphin species during dynamic exercise in humans. Clin Physiol. 1995;15:73-9.
9. Gozansky WS, Lynn JS, Laudenslager ML et al. Salivary cortisol determined by enzyme immunoassay is preferable to serum total cortisol for assessment of dynamic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Clin Endocrinol. 2005;63:336-341.
10. Crewther BT, Lowe TE, Ingram J, et al. Validating the salivary testosterone and cortisol concentration measures in response to short high-intensity exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2010;50:85-92.
11. Wilkerson JE, Horvath SM, Gutin B. Plasma testosterone during treadmill exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1980;49:249-253.
12. Cumming DC. Hormones and Athletic Performance. In Endocrinology and Metabolism. New York: Mc Graw Hill; 1995:1837-1886.
13. Christensen PM, Krustrup P, Gunnarsson TP, et al. VO2 kinetics and performance in soccer players after intense training and inactivity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(9):1716-1724.
14. Reilly T. Energetics of high intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue. J Sports Sci. 1997;15(3):257-63.
15. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. J Sports Sci. 2003;21:439-449.
16. Rienzi E, Drust B, Reilly T, et al. Investigation of anthropometric and work-rate proﬁles of elite south american international soccer players. J Sports Med Phy Fitness. 1998;40:162-169.
17. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Amstrup T, et al. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test: physiological response, reliability, and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:697-705.
18. Bangsbo J. The physiology of soccer - with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 1994;619(Suppl 1):S155.
19. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Nybo L, et al. Muscle temperature and sprint performance during soccer matches – beneﬁcial effect of re-warm-up at half time. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2004;14:156–162.
20. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Steensberg A, et al. Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: implications for sprint performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2006;38(6): 1165 – 1174.
21. McMurray RG, Sheps DS, Guinan DM. Effects of naloxone on maximal stress testing in females. J Appl Physiol. 1984;56:436-40.
22. Angelopoulos TJ. Beta-endorphin immunoreactivity during high-intensity exercise with and without opiate blockade. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;86:92-96.
23. Khan S, Evans AA, Hughes S, et al. Beta-endorphin decreases fatigue and increases glucose uptake independently in normal and dystrophic mice. Muscle Nerve. 2005;31(4):481-6.
24. Øktedalen O, Solberg1 EE, Haugen AH, et al. The influence of physical and mental training on plasma beta-endorphin level and pain perception after intensive physical exercise. Stress and Health. 2001;17:121-127.
25. Ispirlidis I, Fatouros IG, Jamurtas AZ et al. Time-course of changes in inflammatory and performance responses following a soccer game. Clin J Sport Med. 2008;18(5): 423-31.
26. Tesch PA, Wright JE. Recovery from short term intense exercise: its relation to capillary supply and blood lactate concentration. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1983;52:98-103.
27. Jansson E, Dudley GA, Norman B, et al. Relationship of recovery from intense exercise to the oxidative potential of skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand. 1990;139(1):147-52.
28. Tesch PA, Dudley GA, Duvoisin MR, et al.): Force and EMG signal patterns during repeated bouts of concentric or eccentric muscle actions. Acta Physiol Scand; 1990;138(3):263-71.
29. Cumming DC, Quigley ME, Yen SSC. Acute suppression of circulating testosterone levels by cortisol in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983;57:671-673.
30. Barbarino A, De Marinis L, Tofani A, et al. Corticotropin-releasing hormone inhibition of gonadotropin release and the effect of opioid blockade. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989;68(3):523-528.
31. Cadoux-Hudson TA, Few JD, Imms FJ. The effect of exercise on the production and clearance of testosterone in well trained young men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1985;54: 321-5.
32. Guezennec Y, Leger L, Lhoste F, et al. Hormone and metabolite response to weight-lifting training sessions. Int J Sports Med. 1986;07(2):100-105.
33. Gravina L, Ruiz F, Lekue JA, et al. Metabolic impact of a soccer match on female players. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(12):1345-52.
34. Viru A, Viru M. Resistance Exercise and Testosterone. In The Encyclopedia Of Sports Medicine an IOC Medical Commission Publication. ed. The Endocrine System in Sports and Exercise, Volume XI. USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2005:321-322.
35. Cardinale M, Stone MH. Is testosterone influencing explosive performance? J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20:103-107.
36. Kraemer WJ, French DN, Paxton NJ, et al. Changes in exercise performance and hormonal concentrations over a big ten soccer season in starters and nonstarters. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18:121-128.
37. Passelergue P, Robert A, Lac G. Salivary cortisol and testosterone variations during an official and a simulated weightlifting competition. Int J Sport Med. 1995;16:298-303.
38. Crewther BT, Lowe TE, Weatherby RP, et al. Neuromuscular performance of elite rugby union players and relationships with salivary hormones. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(7):2046-53.
39. Gotshalk LA, Loebel CC, Nindl BC, et al. Hormonal responses of multiset versus single-set heavy-resistance exercise protocols. Can J Appl Physiol. 1997;22:244-255.