Main Article Content
COVID-19, Detraining, Football, Athletic Performance
Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in the selected physical and physiological properties of football players in the long-term detraining stage during the pandemic period. Methods: In this study, 14 semi-professional football players (mean age: 22.21±3.29 years old and mean height: 177.86±5.35 cm) took part voluntarily. The participants had remained in detraining in the home environment for 89 days until the final measurements, following the decision of cessation of the leagues made by the Turkish Football Federation, except soft and irregular exercises they did with theirbody weight. The participants’ body composition characteristics, anaerobic performance, flexibility, and speed performance were measured. The descriptive statistics for numeric variables were expressed as mean±standard deviation. Since parametric test assumptions were provided as a result of examining the data acquired from the experimental subjects via the Shapiro-Wilk test, the repetitive measurements were evaluated using the “Paired-Sample t-test”. In addition, the mathematical differences between the two measurements were indicated with percentage. The results were evaluated at the confidence interval of 95% and the value p<0.05 was accepted to be significant. Results: Comparing the pretest-posttest results of the participants; the difference between the two measurements was statistically insignificant in terms of body weight, BMI, 30 m speed, and fatigue index properties, while the
difference in terms of body muscle mass, fat mass, fat ratio, waist-hip ratio, peak power, average power, minimum power and flexibility properties was significant. Conclusion: A long-term detraining process significantly damages the physical and motor performance of football players.
2. Al'Hazzaa HM, Almuzaini KS, Al-Refaee SA, et al.. Aerobic and anaerobic power characteristics of Saudi elite soccer players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 2001; 41(1): 54-61.
3. Stone KJ, Oliver JL. The effect of 45 minutes of soccer-specific exercise on the performance of soccer skills. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2009; 4(2), 163-175.
4. Castagna C, Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, et al. The Yo–Yo intermittent recovery test in basketball players. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2008; 11(2): 202-208.
5. Özkan A, Köklü Y, Ersöz G. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test. Journal of Human Sciences, 2010; 7 (1): 209-211.
6. Engels HJ, Currie JS, Lueck CC, et al. Bench/step training with and without extremity loading: Effects on muscular fitness, body composition profile, and psychological affect. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 2002; 42, 71-78.
7. Boileau RA, Horswill CA. Body composition in sports: Measurement and applications for weight loss and gain. Exercise and sport science. Philadelphia: Lippincontt Williams and Wilkins, 2000; 319-38.
8. Högström GM, Pietilä T, Nordström P, et al. Body composition and performance: influence of sport and gender among adolescents. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2012; 26(7): 1799-1804.
9. Bompa TO. Antrenman Kuramı ve Yönetimi (Çev: İ. Keskin ve A. B. Tuner) Ankara: Bağırgan Yayınevi; 2001.
10. Weineck J. Futbolda kondisyon antrenmani. (Çev: T. Bağirgan). Spor Yayinevi ve Kitapevi. Spor kurami, 5, 2011; 194-195.
11. Madsen K, Pedersen PK, Djurhuus S, et al. Effects of detraınıng on endurance capacıty and muscle electrolytes durıng prolonged exhaustıve exercıse: 546. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 1992;24(5): 91-98.
12. Fleck S, Kraemer JW. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. MMWR, 1997; 46: 1-79.
13. Vagner R, Andrade E, Masudo SM, et al. Physical Fitness Research Center of Sao Caeta No Do Sul, Celafiscs. Brazil. Supplement, 1998; 194: 1101.
14. Mujika I, Padilla S. Detraining: loss of training-induced physiological and performance adaptations. Part II. Sports Medicine, 2000; 30(3): 145-154.
15. Mackenzie B. Performance evaluation tests. London: Electric World plc, 2005; 24(25): 57-158.
16. Fox EL, Bowers RW, Foss ML. The physiological basis of physical education and athletics. William C Brown Pub; 1989.
17. Colakoglu T, Er F, Ipekoglu G, et al. Evaluation of physical, physiological and some performance parameters of the Turkish elite orienteers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2014; 152: 403-408.
18. Aktaş HN, Aslan CS. The examination of relationship between body composition and velocıty on amateur soccer players. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 2018; 1(1): 17-25.
19. Cerrah AO, Polat C, Ertan E.evaluating some physical and technique chracteristics of super amateur soccer players according to their playing positions. Niğde Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 2011; 5(1):1–6.
20. Karakulak İ, Eyuboğlu E, Aslan CS. Comparison of physical and motor characteristics of central and winger players in soccer. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 2019; 17(2): 126-131.
21. Köklü Y, Özkan A, Alemdaroğlu U, et al. The comparison of some physical fitness and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players according to their playing positions. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 2009; 7(2): 61-68.
22. Karakulak İ. Examining the periodic changes of selected physical and physiological characteristics in elite young football players in the untrained phase (detraining). Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Doktora Tezi; 2018.
23. Sotiropoulos A, Travlos AK, Gissis I, et al. The effect of a 4-week training regimen on body fat and aerobic capacity of professional soccer players during the transition period. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2009; 23(6): 1697-1703.
24. Silva JR, Brito J, Akenhead R, et al. The transition period in soccer: a window of opportunity. Sports Medicine, 2016; 46(3), 305-313.
25. Requena B, García I, Suárez-Arrones L, et al. (2017). Off-season effects on functional performance, body composition, and blood parameters in top-level professional soccer players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 2017; 31(4), 939-946.
26. Amigo N, Cadefau JA, Ferrer I, et al. Effect of summer intermission on skeletal muscle of adolescent soccer players. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 1998; 38(4), 298.
27. Caldwell BP, Peters DM. Seasonal variation in physiological fitness of a semiprofessional soccer team. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2009; 23(5), 1370-1377.
28. Strong WB, Stanitski CL, Smith RE, et al. Strength, flexibility, and maturity in adolescent athletes. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 1989; 143(5), 560-563.
29. Branta C, Haubenstricker J, Seefeldt V. Age changes in motor skills during childhood and adolescence. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 1984; 12, 467-520.
30. Nakamura D, Suzuki T, Yasumatsu M, et al. Moderate running and plyometric training during off-season did not show a significant difference on soccer-related high-intensity performances compared with no-training controls. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2012; 26(12), 3392-3397.
31. Bangsbo, J. Aerobic and Anaerobic Training in Soccer: fitness training in soccer I. Stormtryk; 2007.
32. Joo CH. The effects of short-term detraining on exercise performance in soccer players. Journal of exercise rehabilitation, 2016; 12(1), 54.
33. Herrero JA, Izquierdo M, Maffiuletti NA, et al. Electromyostimulation and plyometric training effects on jumping and sprint time. International journal of sports medicine, 2006; 27(07), 533-539.