Main Article Content
Diet quality, Mediternean diet, Obesity, Body fat, Nutritional behaviours
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between "KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index", "Diet Quality Index International (DQI-I)" scales and Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat percentage, biochemical parameters of preobese and obese women.
Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on 125 participants who applied to Fırat University Hospital Nutrition and Diet Policlinic between 11 April 2019 and 31 May 2019 in Elazıg/Turkey. Nutritional habits were evaluated with KIDMED and DQI-I. Food frequency questionare was used to collect data on dietary patterns. Chi-square test, T-test, ANOVA were used to analyze data. Scheffe or Tamhane tests were used in the binary comparisons of the groups. Pearson Correlation was used to evaluate the relation of quantitative variables with each other.
Results: The mean age of the participants was 39,09±14,36 (min 19- max 69) years and %52 (n:65) were pre-obese and % 48 (n:60) were obese according to BMI. Mean scores of KIDMED and DQI-I of pre-obeses were significantly higher than obeses. BMI, body fat percentage, total cholesterol level were inversely associated with both DQI-I and KIDMED. The relationship between total cholesterol level and dietary total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, empty calorie food, and fatty acid ratio scores was negatively significant for each component.
Conclusion: The majority of pre-obese people were in the good and average categories of KIDMED, while the obese were mostly in the average and poor categories.The relationship between BMI and DQI-I total score was stronger than KIDMED.
2. Albataineh SR, Badran EF, Tayyem RF. Overweight and obesity in childhood: Dietary, biochemical, inflammatory and lifestyle risk factors. Obes Med. 2019 Sep;15(May):100112.
3. Palmer BF. The sexual dimorphism of obesity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;31(3):477–9.
4. Chang E, Varghese M, Singer K. Gender and Sex Differences in Adipose Tissue. Curr Diab Rep. 2018 Sep;18(9):69.
5. WHO | By category | Body Mass Index (BMI).
6. Medina-Remón A, Kirwan R, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Estruch R. Dietary patterns and the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and neurodegenerative diseases. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018;58(2):262–96.
7. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu, Türkiye Sağlık Araştırması, 2019.
8. Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Ahima RS. Does diet quality or nutrient quantity contribute more to health? J Clin Invest. 2019;129(10):3969–70.
9. Hruby A, Manson JAE, Qi L, Malik VS, Rimm EB, Sun Q, et al. Determinants and consequences of obesity. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(9):1656–62.
10. Bälter K, Möller E, Fondell E. The effect of dietary guidelines on cancer risk and mortality. Curr Opin Oncol. 2012;24(1):90–102.
11. Teixeira PJ, Carraça E V., Marques MM, Rutter H, Oppert J-M, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Successful behavior change in obesity interventions in adults: a systematic review of self-regulation mediators. BMC Med. 2015 Dec;13(1):84.
12. Sanches Machado d’Almeida K, Ronchi Spillere S, Zuchinali P, Corrêa Souza G. Mediterranean Diet and Other Dietary Patterns in Primary Prevention of Heart Failure and Changes in Cardiac Function Markers: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2018 Jan;10(1):58.
13. Asghari G, Mirmiran P, Yuzbashian E, Azizi F. A systematic review of diet quality indices in relation to obesity. Br J Nutr. 2017;117(8):1055–65.
14. Kim S, Haines PS, Siega-Riz AM, Popkin BM. The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) Provides an Effective Tool for Cross-National Comparison of Diet Quality as Illustrated by China and the United States. J Nutr. 2003;133(11):3476–84.
15. Serra-Majem L, Ribas L, Ngo J, Ortega RM, García A, Pérez-Rodrigo C, et al. Food, youth and the Mediterranean diet in Spain. Development of KIDMED, Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents. Public Health Nutr. 2004;7(7):931–5.
16. Kontogianni MD, Farmaki AE, Vidra N, Sofrona S, Magkanari F, Yannakoulia M. Associations between Lifestyle Patterns and Body Mass Index in a Sample of Greek Children and Adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(2):215–21.
17. Dagoglu I. Evaluation of the relationship between body mass index and mediterranean diet quality index and diet quality scale in pre-obese and obese women. [master’s thesis]. Istanbul, Turkey: Halic University, Instute of Health Science, Nutrition and Dietetics; 2019.
18. Association AD. Practice Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Using the Dietary Reference Intakes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 May;111(5):762–70.
19. Bountziouka V, Bathrellou E, Giotopoulou A, Katsagoni C, Bonou M, Vallianou N, et al. Development, repeatability and validity regarding energy and macronutrient intake of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire: Methodological considerations. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;22(8):659–67.
20. D’Innocenzo S, Biagi C, Lanari M. Obesity and the Mediterranean Diet: A Review of Evidence of the Role and Sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet. Nutrients. 2019 Jun;11(6):1306.
21. Sofi F, Cesari F, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008 Sep;337(sep11 2):a1344–a1344.
22. Trichopoulou A, Costacou T, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun;348(26):2599–608.
23. Pilis W, Stec K, Zych M, Pilis A. Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet. Rocz Państwowego Zakładu Hig. 2014;65(1):9–14.
24. Yokoyama Y, Levin SM, Barnard ND. Association between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2017;75(9):683–98.
25. Rogerson D, Maçãs D, Milner M, Liu Y, Klonizakis M. Contrasting Effects of Short-Term Mediterranean and Vegan Diets on Microvascular Function and Cholesterol in Younger Adults: A Comparative Pilot Study. Nutrients. 2018 Dec;10(12):1897.
26. DASH Diet. In: Handbook of Disease Burdens and Quality of Life Measures. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2010. p. 4184–4184.
27. Chiavaroli L, Viguiliouk E, Nishi SK, Mejia SB, Rahelić D, Kahleová H, et al. DASH Dietary Pattern and Cardiometabolic Outcomes: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Nutrients. 2019 Feb;11(2):338.
28. Gregory CO, McCullough ML, Ramirez-Zea M, Stein AD. Diet scores and cardio-metabolic risk factors among Guatemalan young adults. Br J Nutr. 2008 Nov;101(12):1805–11.
29. Fung TT, McCullough ML, Newby PK, Manson JAE, Meigs JB, Rifai N, et al. Diet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(1):163–73.
30. Quatromoni PA, Pencina M, Cobain MR, Jacques PF, D’Agostino RB. Dietary Quality Predicts Adult Weight Gain: Findings from the Framingham Offspring Study*. Obesity. 2006 Aug;14(8):1383–91.
31. Lassale C, Fezeu L, Andreeva VA, Hercberg S, Kengne AP, Czernichow S, et al. Association between dietary scores and 13-year weight change and obesity risk in a French prospective cohort. Int J Obes. 2012;36(11):1455–62.
32. Asghari G, Mirmiran P, Rashidkhani B, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Mehran M, Azizi F. The association between diet quality indices and obesity: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Arch Iran Med. 2012;15(10):599–605.
33. Huo R, Du T, Xu Y, Xu W, Chen X, Sun K, et al. Effects of Mediterranean-style diet on glycemic control, weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes individuals: A meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015;69(11):1200–8.
34. Kastorini CM, Milionis HJ, Esposito K, Giugliano D, Goudevenos JA, Panagiotakos DB. The effect of mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome and its components: A meta-analysis of 50 studies and 534,906 individuals. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57(11):1299–313.
35. Romaguera D, Norat T, Vergnaud AC, Mouw T, May AM, Agudo A, et al. Mediterranean dietary patterns and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA project. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(4):912–21.
36. Nishida C, Barba C, Cavalli-Sforza T, Cutter J, Deurenberg P, Darnton-Hill I, et al. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363(9403):157–63.
37. Ho-Pham LT, Campbell L V., Nguyen T V. More on Body Fat Cutoff Points. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011 Jun;86(6):584.
38. Ortega FB, Sui X, Lavie CJ, Blair SN. Body Mass Index, the Most Widely Used but Also Widely Criticized Index Would a Criterion Standard Measure of Total Body Fat Be a Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality? Mayo Clin Proc. 2016;91(4):443–55.