Main Article Content
Injuries, Workplace physical aggression, trend
Background: Workplace physical aggressions determine severe consequences for people and organizations. Previous studies reported their spread in organizations and described factors related to their occurrence (e.g. aggressor within/outside the organization, type of activity, etc.). However, such data are not available in the Italian work contexts, limiting the possibility of intervention. Objectives: This study aims to provide a description of workplace physical aggressions in the Italian context and the Emilia-Romagna region, considering the main variables described in the literature. Methods: We used data available from the "Flussi informativi" database, containing national data provided by INAIL (National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work), which concern all injuries, occupational illness and insured companies’ information, from 2000 to 2018. Information about aggressions in the workplace in Italy and Emilia-Romagna are derived from a subset of these data, coded according to ESAW (European Statistics for Accidents at Work) requirements. The number of events per year per 100,000 estimated insured employees by INAIL is considered as an indicator. Results: In the period 2014-2018, 23,084 injures from aggression were registered in Italy (an average of 28.7 events per 100,000 employees) and 2,308 in Emilia Romagna (30.2). Aggressions by people outside the organization accounted for 85.14 % in Italy and 87.87% in Emilia-Romagna region. “Health and social services”, “Offices and other activities” and “Transportation” were the sectors that showed the highest numbers of events and rates. Furthermore, we reported detailed results about the variation of the events between professions, the site and nature of the lesion and gravity of events. Discussion: The study provides a description of workplace physical aggressions in the Italian context and we discuss the implication of these results for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention strategies of intervention.
2. Piquero NL, Piquero AR, Craig JM, Clipper SJ: Assessing research on workplace violence, 2000-2012. Aggression Violent Behav 2013;18(3):383-394
3. Schat ACH, Kelloway EK: Workplace violence. In Barling J, Kelloway EK, FroneM (eds): Handbook of Work Stress. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005: 189–218
4. Parent-Thirion A, Fernández Macías E, Hurley J, Vermeylen G. (2007). Fourth, European Working Conditions Survey, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Available online at: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/surveys/ewcs2005/index.htm (last access 7-7-2020)
5. Li Y-L, Li R-Q, Qiu D, Xiao S-Y: Prevalence of workplace physical violence against health care professionals by patients and visitors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020;17(1)
6. Acquadro Maran D, Varetto A, Zedda M, Magnavita N. Workplace Violence Toward Hospital Staff and Volunteers: A Survey of an Italian Sample. J Aggression Maltreat Trauma 2018; 27: 76-95
7. Magnavita N. The exploding spark: Workplace violence in an infectious disease hospital - A longitudinal study. BioMed Res Int 2013;2013.
8. Magnavita N, Heponiemi T. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: A repeated cross-sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res 2012;12(1).
9. Magnavita N, Heponiemi T, Chirico F. Workplace Violence Is Associated With Impaired Work Functioning in Nurses: An Italian Cross-Sectional Study. J Nurs Scholarsh 2020;52(3):281-291.
10. Martini A, Fantini S, D'Ovidio MC, Ceracchi A, De Santis A. Risk assessment of aggression toward emergency health care workers. Occup Med 2012;62(3):223-225.
11. Hills DJ: Defining and classifying aggression and violence in health care work. Collegian 2018;25(6):607-612
12. Jiang L, Probst TM, Benson W, Byrd J: Voices carry: Effects of verbal and physical aggression on injuries and accident reporting. Accid Anal Prev 2018;118:190-199
13. Geoffrion S, Goncalves J, Sader J, Boyer R, Marchand A, Guay S: Workplace aggression against health care workers, law enforcement officials, and bus drivers: Differences in prevalence, perceptions, and psychological consequences. J Workplace Behav Health 2017;32(3):172-189
14. Nielsen K: How can we make organizational interventions work? Employees and line managers as actively crafting interventions. Hum Relat 2013;66(8):1029-1050