Main Article Content
Cyberchondria, COVID-19 Phobia Scale, İnfodemic, psychological well-being
Background: This study aims at investigating level and contributor factors of Cyberchondria, Covid-19-related Phobia, and Well-Being in a sample of teachers in Turkey. Methods: The study was conducted on teachers (n=1000) working in a province in eastern Turkey. Data for the study were collected using a form that included participants’ descriptive characteristics, the Covid-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-SE), the Cyberchondria Severity Scale, and the World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Spearman correlation analysis, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: As participant’s cyberchondria levels rose, C19P-SE scores increased (r=0.271, p<0.001), and WHO-5 scores decreased (r=-0.224, p<0.05). Corona-phobia was higher in those who used social media than in those who did not (p<0.05). Cyberchondria scale scores were higher among those who had taken medications without a physician’s recommendation during the pandemic. Participants who had a disabled person or a person in need of care in their household had higher scores for distrust of the physician and C19P-SE than for the cyberchondria severity scale sub-dimension, and the WHO-5 mean scores were lower (p<0.001, P=0.016, and P=0.020, respectively).Conclusions: The study results show that increasing levels of cyberchondria trigger Covid-19 phobias in teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic and negatively affect their well-being. This descriptive study can help understand the risk group for cyberchondria, the influencing factors, and the health and economic consequences, and identify strategies for effective combating with cyberchondria.
2. Tüzün H, Demirköse H, Özkan S, Dikmen A, İlhan N. Covid-19 Pandemisi ve Risk İletişimi. Gazi Sağlık Bi-limleri Dergisi.2020:1-8.
3. Jungmann SM, Witthöft M. Health anxiety, cyberchondria, and coping in the current COVID-19 pandemic: Which factors are related to coronavirus anxiety? J Anxiety Disord. 2020;73:102239.
4. WHO. Infodemic 2022 [Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/infodemic#tab=tab_1.]
5. Jahrami H, BaHammam AS, AlGahtani H, et al. The examination of sleep quality for frontline healthcare workers during the outbreak of COVID-19. Sleep Breath. 2020:1-9.
6. Gölbaşi SD, Metintas S. COVID-19 Pandemisi Ve İnfodemi. ESTÜDAM Halk Sağlığı Dergisi.5:126-37.
7. Laato S, Islam AN, Islam MN, Whelan E. What drives unverified information sharing and cyberchondria during the COVID-19 pandemic? Eur J Inf Syst.. 2020;29(3):288-305.
8. Starcevic V, Berle D. Cyberchondria: towards a better understanding of excessive health-related Inter-net use. Expert Rev Neurother. 2013;13(2):205-13.
9. Norr AM, Allan NP, Boffa JW, Raines AM, Schmidt N. Validation of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS): replication and extension with bifactor modeling. J Anxiety Disord. 2015;31:58-64.
10. Fergus TA. The Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS): an examination of structure and relations with health anxiety in a community sample. J Anxiety Disord. 2014;28(6):504-10.
11. Ibrahim NKJ. Zika virus: Epidemiology, current phobia and preparedness for upcoming mass gatherings, with examples from World Olympics and Pilgrimage. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2016;32(4):1038.
12. Kim CW, Song HR. Structural relationships among public’s risk characteristics, trust, risk perception and preventive behavioral intention: The case of MERS in Korea. Crisisnomy.2017;13:85-95.
13. Arpaci I, Karataş K, Baloğlu M. The development and initial tests for the psychometric properties of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). Pers Individ Dif . 2020;164:110108.
14. Deniz S, Bentli R, Kalkanli MT, et al. Malatya ilinde çalışan öğretmenlerin sağlık okuryazarlığı düzeyle-rinin ve ilişkili faktörlerin belirlenmesi. Sakarya Tıp Dergisi. 2020;10(1):28-36.
15. McElroy E, Shevlin MJ. The development and initial validation of the cyberchondria severity scale (CSS). J Anxiety Disord.2014;28(2):259-65.
16. Uzun SU, Zencir M. Reliability and validity study of the Turkish version of cyberchondria severity scale. Curr Psychol.2018:1-7.
17. Bech P, Gudex C, Johansen KS, psychosomatics. The WHO (Ten) well-being index: validation in diabe-tes.Psychother Psychosom.1996;65(4):183-90.
18. Topp CW, Ostergaard SD, Sondergaard S, Bech P. The WHO-5 Well-Being Index: a systematic review of the literature. Psychother Psychosom. 2015;84(3):167-76.
19. Topp CW, Østergaard SD, Søndergaard S, Bech P. The WHO-5 Well-Being Index: a systematic review of the literature. Psychother Psychosom.. 2015;84(3):167-76.
20. Misra S, Stokols D. Psychological and health outcomes of perceived information overload. Environ Be-hav. 2012;44(6):737-59.
21. Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Imani V, et al. The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and initial validation. Int J Ment Health Addict..2020:1-9.
22. Lazer DM, Baum MA, Benkler Y, et al. The science of fake news. 2018;359(6380):1094-6.
23. Zarocostas JJ. How to fight an infodemic. Lancet.2020;395(10225):676.
24. Wu X, Nazari N, Griffiths MD. Using Fear and Anxiety Related to COVID-19 to Predict Cyberchondria: Cross-sectional Survey Study. J Med Internet Res. 2021;23(6):e26285.
25. Tarhan N, Tutgun-Ünal A, Ekinci Y. Yeni Kuşak Hastalığı Siberkondri: Yeni Medya Çağında Kuşakların Si-berkondri Düzeyleri İle Sağlık Okuryazarlığı İlişkisi. OPUS Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi .17(37):4253-97.
26. Ho TTQ. Facebook Addiction Partially Mediated the Association Between Stress Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance Among Facebook Users. Int J Ment Health Addict.2021:1-11.
27. Cinelli M, Quattrociocchi W, Galeazzi A, et al. The COVID-19 social media infodemic. Sci Rep.2020;10(1):1-10.
28. Dağli DA, Büyükbayram A, Arabaci LB. COVID-19 tanısı alan hasta ve ailesine psikososyal yaklaşım. İz-mir Katip Çelebi Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi.2020;5(2):191-5.
29. Nguyen TT, Le NT, Nguyen MH, et al. Health Literacy and Preventive Behaviors Modify the Association between Pre-Existing Health Conditions and Suspected COVID-19 Symptoms: A Multi-Institutional Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(22).