The correlation between ART and OCRA methods used for posture assessment of repetitive tasks correlation between ART and OCRA methods

Main Article Content

Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi
Vafa Feyzi
Zohre Foroozanfar
Somayeh Rahimi Moghadam


correlation, posture assessment, ART, OCRA, repetitive tasks, ergonomics


Background and Objective: Repetitive tasks are among the causes of musculoskeletal disorders. Assessment of repetitivetasks is performed through various methods with different scores and significance given to risk factors considered in these methods. Knowing the strengths and weaknesses of each method can contribute to modifying the methods and improving the correlation between them. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between ART and OCRA methods in a career with repetitive movements. Methods: After hierarchical task analysis in a vegetable grower job with repetitive movements, the subtasks were assessed by an assessor who mastered both ART and OCRA methods. The final score of each method was checked using the Pearson correlation coefficient in SPSS 18, after testing the normality of data. Results: Moderate risk levels were reported for 16 out of the 14 sub-tasks analyzed using both methods. In the ART method, 3 sub-tasks and in the OCRA method, 2 sub-tasks had high-risk levels. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.842 indicating a moderate correlation between the two posture assessment methods. Conclusion: The findings of the study showed an acceptable correlation and compatibility between the two methods considering the risk levels.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 10 | PDF Downloads 6


1. Raithatha AS, Mishra DG. Musculoskeletal disorders and perceived work demands among female nurses at a tertiary care hospital in India. Int J Chronic Dis 2016;2016.
2. Luan HD, Hai NT, Xanh PT, et al. Musculoskeletal Disorders: Prevalence and Associated Factors among District Hospital Nurses in Haiphong, Vietnam. BioMed research international 2018;2018.
3. Md Saquib ESK, Er Y A Ansari, Shakeel Ahmad Dar, Shadab Sarwar. Factor Affecting Musculoskeletal Disorders and Cumulative Trauma Disorders in workplace Design: A Review. IJSRD 2016;4(1):313-6.
4. Taghavi SM, Mokarami H, Ahmadi O, Stallones L, Abbaspour A, Marioryad H. Risk factors for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders during dairy farming. Int J Occup Environ Med. 2017;8(1):39-45.
5. Jafari Roodbandi A, Daneshvar S, Sadeghi M, Barsam T, Rahimi Moghadam S, Feyzi V. The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders and effective factor in Zarand city farmers, 2010-2011. J Occup Hyg Eng 2015;2(2):23-31.
6. Patil SA, Kadam YR, Mane AS, Gore AD, Dhumale GB. The prevalence and health impact of musculoskeletal disorders among farmers. Medical Journal of Dr DY Patil Vidyapeeth 2018;11(6):485- 91.
7. Pinzke S, Lavesson L. Ergonomic conditions in manual harvesting in Swedish outdoor cultivation. AAEM 2018;25(3):481-7.
8. Jain R, Meena ML, Dangayach GS, Bhardwaj AK. Risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in manual harvesting farmers of Rajasthan. Ind Health 2018;56(3):241-8.
9. Rahman MNA, Razak NSA. Review on pen and paper based observational methods for assessing work-related upper limb disorders. Indian J Sci Technol 2016;9(2):1-11.
10. Assessment of repetitive tasks of the upper limbs (the ART tool). Guidance for employers. Health and Safety Executive 1-16.
11. Jafari Roodbandi A, Karimi A, Mardi H, Nadri F, Nadri H. The Prevalence of Musculoskelet al Disorders and Posture Assessment by ART method in Mosaic art in Kerman city. J Neyshabur Univ Med Sci 2014;2(2):38-42.
12. Habibi E, Mehrifar Y. Posture analysis of repetitive tasks in workers of a refrigerator factory using ART method. J Prev Med 2017;4(1):41-6.
13. Rahman MNA, Hui UJ, Haq RHA, Hassan MF, Arifin AMT, Yunos MZ, et al. Assessment of Repetitive Tasks Among Workers in Mould Making Manufacturing Industry. Adv Sci Lett 2017;23(5):4405-9.
14. Zuhaidi MFA, Rahman MNA, editors. A Review on Methods for Assessing Risk Factors of the Upper Limb Disorders among Cashiers in Grocery Retail Industries. MATEC Web of Conferences Vol. 135. EDP Sciences 2017.
15. Khandan M, Mosaferchi S, Koohpaei A. Assessing Exposure to Risk Factors for Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders Using ART method in a Manufacturing Company. Arch Hyg Sci 2017;6(3):259-67.
16. Anwar S, Putri. Application of the Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) Index to Assess Ergonomic Risks of Corn Seed Production Workers. Proceeding Seminar Nasional Teknik Industri Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 2017:112-9.
17. Nurani M, Mehrparvar A, Fazli B, Jafari S, Taefeh Rahimiyan R. Ergonomic evaluation of posture by OCRA software in assembly workers of a power station gas turbine manufacturing industry and assessment of ergonomics training effect on reduction of risk level. Journal of Health 2014;4(4):304-11.
18. Siboro BAH, Afma VM, Purbasari A, Kasim MQ, editors. Design of Tofu Cutting Tools to Improve Repetitive Tasks Using OCRA. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering; 2019: IOP Publishing.
19. Tosin A. Ergonomic analysis and design of two workplaces of an automotive supplier company. 2019.
20. dos Reis DC, Ramos E, Reis PF, Hembecker PK, Gontijo LA, Moro ARP. Assessment of risk factors of upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders in poultry slaughterhouse. Procedia Manuf. 2015;3:4309-14.
21. Colombini D, Occhipinti E. Scientific basis of the OCRA method for risk assessment of biomechanical overload of upper limb, as preferred method in ISO standards on biomechanical risk factors. Scand J WorkEnviron Health. 2018;44(4):436-8.
22. Dias N, Tirloni A, Reis D, Moro A. Effect of Job Rotation on the Risk of Developing Ul-WMSDS in Poultry Slaughterhouse Workers. Braz J Poult Sci. 2019;21(2).
23. Taborri J, Bordignon M, Marcolin F, Bertoz A, Donati M, Rossi S. On the OCRA Measurement: Automatic Computation of the Dynamic Technical Action Frequency Factor. Sensors 2020;20(6):1643.
24. Lavatelli I, Schaub K, Caragnano G. Correlations in between EAWS and OCRA Index concerning the repetitive loads of the upper limbs in automobile manufacturing industries. Work. 2012;41(Supplement 1):4436-44.
25. Paulsen R, Gallu T, Gilkey D, Reiser II R, Murgia L, Rosecrance J. The inter-rater reliability of Strain Index and OCRA Checklist task assessments in cheese processing. Appl Ergon. 2015;51:199-204.
26. Sala E, Torri D, Tomasi C,Apostoli P. Risk assessment for upper extremity work related muscoloskeletal disorders in different manufactures by applying six methods of ergonomic analysis. G. Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2010;32(2):162-73.
27. Motamedzade M, Mohammadian M, Faradmal J. Comparing of Four Ergonomic Risk Assessment Methods of HAL-TLV, Strain Index, OCRA Checklist, and ART for Repetitive Work Tasks. Iran J Health Saf Environ. 2019;6(3):1303-9.
28. al ACe. Statistical methods in medical science researches using SPSS software. 2011.
29. dos Reis DC, Tirloni AS, Ramos E, Moro ARP. G3-2 Assessment of risk factors of upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders in a chicken slaughterhouse. Jpn J Ergon. 2017;53(Supplement2):S458-S61.
30. Torkaman J, Motamedzade M, Golmohammadi R, Roshanaee G. Evaluation of the musculoskeletal disorders by ART technique and implementation of ergonomics intervention programs in a manufacturing company. J Occup Hyg Eng. 2015;2(1):11-9.
31. Kjellberg K, Lindberg P, Nyman T, , et al, editors. Comparisons of six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work-results from a consensus assessment. Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne; 2015.
32. Chiasson M-È, Imbeau D, Aubry K, Delisle A. Comparing the results of eight methods used to evaluate risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders. Int J IndErgon. 2012;42(5):478-88.
33. Roman-Liu D, Groborz A, Tokarski T. Comparison of risk assessment procedures used in OCRA and ULRA methods. Ergonomics. 2013;56(10):1584- 98.
34. Assessment of repetitive tasks of the upper limbs (the ART tool). HSE, 2010,
35. Eliasson K, Nyman T, Forsman M, editors. Usability of six observational risk assessment methods. Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne; 2015.
36. Razak NSA, Rahman MNA, editors. Usability of the Upper Limb Risk Assessment (UPLIRA) Method for Assessing the Risk Factors of Upper Limb Disorders. MATEC Web of Conferences; 2017: EDP Sciences.
37. Shokri S, Varmazyar S, Safari Varyani A. Manual material handling assessment and repetitive tasks with two methods MAC and ART in a subsidiary of a manufacturer of cleaning products. Sci J Rev 2015;4(8):116-23.