Cardiovascular system is at higher risk of affecting by COVID-19 COVID-19 and CVD

Main Article Content

Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi
Arash Heidari
Narges Shakerian
Amene Saghazadeh
Nima Rezaei


COVID-19; cardiovascular disease; recurrence; relapse; SARS-CoV-2; 2019-nCoV; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2


SARS-CoV-2 has shown its potential to cause severe manifestations among individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD). The patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with pre-existing CVD are more likely to relapse. There are several reasons, including the prolonged hospitalization time as a consequence of their more severe illness and aberrant expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) – the cell surface receptor of SARS-COV2 that is present on cardiac cells – and using drugs such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) that alter the expression of ACE2. Besides, SARS-CoV-2 shares structural similarities with SARS-CoV-1, and that patients recovered from SARS-CoV1 have shown an increased risk of developing inflammatory, metabolic, and cardiac diseases. It makes some concerns that people who recovered from SARS-CoV2 are also liable to develop these chronic conditions later. Further studies should investigate the probability of recurrence of COVID-19 in patients with CVD and the development of approaches for the prevention of chronic inflammatory conditions in patients with CVD who recovered from COVID-19.



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 64 | PDF Downloads 33


1. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet (London, England). 2020;395(10223):497-506.
2. (WHO) WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports. Published 2020. Accessed.
3. Zumla A, Hui DS, Perlman S. Middle East respiratory syndrome. The Lancet. 2015;386(9997):995-1007.
4. Lan L, Xu D, Ye G, et al. Positive RT-PCR Test Results in Patients Recovered From COVID-19. JAMA. 2020.
5. Chen D, Xu W, Lei Z, et al. Recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA in COVID-19: A case report. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2020.
6. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA. 2020.
7. Zhou L, Liu K, Liu HG. [Cause analysis and treatment strategies of "recurrence" with novel coronavirus pneumonia (covid-19) patients after discharge from hospital]. Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. 2020;43(0):E028.
8. Zheng Y-Y, Ma Y-T, Zhang J-Y, Xie X. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2020.
9. Badawi A, Ryoo SG. Prevalence of comorbidities in the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): a systematic review and meta-analysis. International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2016;49:129-133.
10. Alhogbani T. Acute myocarditis associated with novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Annals of Saudi medicine. 2016;36(1):78-80.
11. Ou X, Liu Y, Lei X, et al. Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV. Nature Communications. 2020;11(1):1620.
12. Wu Q, Zhou L, Sun X, et al. Altered Lipid Metabolism in Recovered SARS Patients Twelve Years after Infection. Scientific Reports. 2017;7(1):9110.
13. Li W, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature. 2003;426(6965):450-454.
14. Liu Z, Xiao X, Wei X, et al. Composition and divergence of coronavirus spike proteins and host ACE2 receptors predict potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2. Journal of medical virology. 2020.
15. Fang L, Karakiulakis G, Roth M. Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.
16. Parish RC, Miller LJ. Adverse Effects of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors. Drug Safety. 1992;7(1):14-31.
17. Johnston CI. Angiotensin receptor antagonists: focus on losartan. Lancet (London, England). 1995;346(8987):1403-1407.

DB Error: Unknown column 'Array' in 'where clause'