Main Article Content
measles, burden of disease, italy, vaccination, disability-adjusted life years
Background and aim: The low measles vaccination coverage contributes to the re-emerging of measles in Italy. This study aimed to estimate the measles burden, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), in Umbria, for the period 2013-2018. Methods: Data on measles cases in Umbria were obtained from the MoRoNet. While data related to the resident population, were obtained from the website of the National Institute of Statistics. The estimated DALYs was calculated using the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe toolkit. The results are expressed in DALYs per year, per case and per 100,000 subjects, for acute illness and for sequelae. Results: The estimated incidence in mean for the entire period was 52.50 cases per year. Resulting in an average loss of 3.10 DALYs per year. Conclusions: The data obtained from this analysis provide important information on the impact of measles in the Umbria region, and offer useful data to the Health Authorities that can be used to reduce measles incidence in the region.
2. World Health Organization. Measles and Rubella Surveillance Data 2019 [Available from: https://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/burden/vpd/surveillance_type/active/measles_monthlydata/en/.
3. Filia A, Tavilla A, Bella A, Magurano F, Ansaldi F, Chironna M, et al. Measles in Italy, July 2009 to September 2010. Euro Surveill. 2011;16(29).
4. Pillsbury A, Quinn H. An assessment of measles vaccine effectiveness, Australia, 2006-2012. Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2015;6(3):43-50.
5. Epicentro. Morbillo, aspetti epidemiologici 2017 [Available from: https://www.epicentro.iss.it/morbillo/epidemiologia-italia.
6. D'Ancona F, D'Amario C, Maraglino F, Rezza G, Iannazzo S. The law on compulsory vaccination in Italy: an update 2 years after the introduction. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(26).
7. Jakab Z. Why a burden of disease study? Euro Surveill. 2007;12(12):E1-2.
8. Gianfredi V, Balzarini F, Gola M, Mangano S, Carpagnano LF, Colucci ME, et al. Leadership in Public Health: Opportunities for Young Generations Within Scientific Associations and the Experience of the "Academy of Young Leaders". Front Public Health. 2019;7:378.
9. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. Popolazione residente, Umbria 2019 [Available from: http://dati.istat.it/Index.aspx?QueryId=18542.
10. Kretzschmar M, Mangen MJ, Pinheiro P, Jahn B, Fevre EM, Longhi S, et al. New methodology for estimating the burden of infectious diseases in Europe. PLoS medicine. 2012;9(4):e1001205.
11. Colzani E, Cassini A, Lewandowski D, Mangen MJ, Plass D, McDonald SA, et al. A Software Tool for Estimation of Burden of Infectious Diseases in Europe Using Incidence-Based Disability Adjusted Life Years. PloS one. 2017;12(1):e0170662.
12. Plass D, Mangen MJ, Kraemer A, Pinheiro P, Gilsdorf A, Krause G, et al. The disease burden of hepatitis B, influenza, measles and salmonellosis in Germany: first results of the burden of communicable diseases in Europe study. Epidemiology and infection. 2014;142(10):2024-35.
13. National Immunization Plan 2017-2019 [Piano Nazionale Prevenzione Vaccinale 2017-2019], (2017).
14. Odone A, Landriscina T, Amerio A, Costa G. The impact of the current economic crisis on mental health in Italy: evidence from two representative national surveys. Eur J Public Health. 2018;28(3):490-5.
15. Gianfredi V, Grisci C, Nucci D, Parisi V, Moretti M. [Communication in health.]. Recenti progressi in medicina. 2018;109(7):374-83.
16. Taylor LE, Swerdfeger AL, Eslick GD. Vaccines are not associated with autism: an evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Vaccine. 2014;32(29):3623-9.
17. Gianfredi V, D'Ancona F, Maraglino F, Cenci C, Iannazzo S. Polio and measles: reasons of missed vaccination in Italy, 2015-2017. Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita. 2019;31(3):191-201.
18. Ministry of Health. Legge 31 luglio 2017, n. 119: «Disposizioni urgenti in materia di prevenzione vaccinale, di malattie infettive e di controversie relative alla somministrazione di farmaci.». Gazzetta Ufficiale Serie Generale. 2017;182
19. Gianfredi V, Moretti M, Lopalco PL. Countering vaccine hesitancy through immunization information systems, a narrative review. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2019:1-19.
20. D'Ancona F, Gianfredi V, Riccardo F, Iannazzo S. Immunisation Registries at regional level in Italy and the roadmap for a future Italian National Registry. Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita. 2018;30(2):77-85.
21. Derrough T, Olsson K, Gianfredi V, Simondon F, Heijbel H, Danielsson N, et al. Immunisation Information Systems - useful tools for monitoring vaccination programmes in EU/EEA countries, 2016. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(17).
22. Bragazzi NL, Barberis I, Rosselli R, Gianfredi V, Nucci D, Moretti M, et al. How often people google for vaccination: Qualitative and quantitative insights from a systematic search of the web-based activities using Google Trends. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2017;13(2):464-9.
23. Provenzano S, Santangelo OE, Giordano D, Alagna E, Piazza D, Genovese D, et al. Predicting disease outbreaks: evaluating measles infection with Wikipedia Trends. Recenti progressi in medicina. 2019;110(6):292-6.
24. Gianfredi V, Bragazzi NL, Mahamid M, Bisharat B, Mahroum N, Amital H, et al. Monitoring public interest toward pertussis outbreaks: an extensive Google Trends-based analysis. Public Health. 2018;165:9-15.
25. Mahroum N, Bragazzi NL, Sharif K, Gianfredi V, Nucci D, Rosselli R, et al. Leveraging Google Trends, Twitter, and Wikipedia to Investigate the Impact of a Celebrity's Death From Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Clin Rheumatol. 2018;24(4):188-92.
26. Gianfredi V, Bragazzi NL, Nucci D, Martini M, Rosselli R, Minelli L, et al. Harnessing Big Data for Communicable Tropical and Sub-Tropical Disorders: Implications From a Systematic Review of the Literature. Front Public Health. 2018;6:90.
27. Bragazzi NL, Gianfredi V, Villarini M, Rosselli R, Nasr A, Hussein A, et al. Vaccines Meet Big Data: State-of-the-Art and Future Prospects. From the Classical 3Is ("Isolate-Inactivate-Inject") Vaccinology 1.0 to Vaccinology 3.0, Vaccinomics, and Beyond: A Historical Overview. Front Public Health. 2018;6:62.
28. Giambi C, Fabiani M, D'Ancona F, Ferrara L, Fiacchini D, Gallo T, et al. Parental vaccine hesitancy in Italy - Results from a national survey. Vaccine. 2018;36(6):779-87.
29. Gianfredi V, Nucci D, Salvatori T, Orlacchio F, Villarini M, Moretti M, et al. "PErCEIVE in Umbria": evaluation of anti-influenza vaccination's perception among Umbrian pharmacists. Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene. 2018;59(1):E14-E9.
30. Gianfredi V, Dallagiacoma G, Provenzano S, Santangelo OE. Factors predicting health science students' willingness to be vaccinated against seasonal flu during the next campaign. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2019;55(3):209-16.
31. Cassini A, Colzani E, Pini A, Mangen MJ, Plass D, McDonald SA, et al. Impact of infectious diseases on population health using incidence-based disability-adjusted life years (DALYs): results from the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe study, European Union and European Economic Area countries, 2009 to 2013. Euro Surveill. 2018;23(16).
32. Orenstein WA, Cairns L, Hinman A, Nkowane B, Olive JM, Reingold AL. Measles and Rubella Global Strategic Plan 2012-2020 midterm review report: Background and summary. Vaccine. 2018;36 Suppl 1:A35-A42.
33. Zou S. Applying DALYs to the burden of infectious diseases. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001;79(3):267-9.
34. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards. Scientific opinion on the development of a risk ranking toolbox for the EFSA BIOHAZ Panel. EFSA Journal. 2015;13(1):3939.