Main Article Content
Cell blood count, diet quality; healthy eating index, inflammation, CBC
Objectives: There is an association between diet quality and markers of inflammation. We aimed to investigate the relationship between diet quality with cell blood count (CBC) and inflammatory indices such as red cell distribution width (RDW) and white blood cell count (WBC). Study Design: A total of 367 male subjects aged 20-69 yrs, who were employees of Shahid Hasheminejad Gas Processing Company (SGPC) completed the study. Methods: All participants completed a questionnaire that contained questions about demography. Standard protocols were used for measuring anthropometric indices in all subjects. Blood samples were collected after a 12 hrs fast from all participants. Biochemical parameters were determined in all participants using an auto-analyzer (Eppendorf, Germany). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. CBC was measured using the Sysmex auto analyser system (KX-21 N). The HEI/AHEI scores extracted from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to evaluate the diet quality. Data analyses were performed using SPSS 16 (SPSS Inc., IL, and USA). Results: A total of 674 men (aged 43.68±9.09 yrs) completed the study. The CBC indices were not significantly different between the HEI/AHEI classifications among the Iranian men (p-value >0.05 for all variables). Moreover, there was no association between HEI/ AHEI with the CBC indices in our population (p-value >0.05 for all variables). Conclusions: In summary, there was no association between the diet quality with the cell blood count parameters among Iranian men.
2. Bernstein AM, Bloom DE, Rosner BA, Franz M, Willett WC. Relation of food cost to healthfulness of diet among US women–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2010 Sep 1;92(5):1197-203.
3. Mansourian M, Kazemi I, Kelishadi R. Pediatric metabolic syndrome and cell blood counts: bivariate Bayesian modeling. Journal of tropical pediatrics. 2013;60(1):61-7.
4. Barbaresko J, Koch M, Schulze MB, Nöthlings U. Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review. Nutrition reviews. 2013 Aug 1;71(8):511-27.
5. Whalen KA, McCullough ML, Flanders WD, Hartman TJ, Judd S, Bostick RM. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Balance in Adults–3. The Journal of nutrition. 2016 Apr 20;146(6):1217-26.
6. Mohammadshahi M, Haidari F, Karandish M, Ebrahimi S, Haghighizadeh MH. A randomized clinical trial of nutrition education for improvement of diet quality and inflammation in Iranian obese women. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2014;2014.
7. Boynton A, Neuhouser ML, Wener MH, Wood B, Sorensen B, Chen-Levy Z, Kirk EA, Yasui Y, LaCroix K, McTiernan A, Ulrich CM. Associations between healthy eating patterns and immune function or inflammation in overweight or obese postmenopausal women–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2007 Nov 1;86(5):1445-55.
8. Zhang Q, Qin G, Liu Z, Li Z, Li J, Varma DS, Wan Q, Zhao J, Min X, Han X, Liu M. Dietary Balance Index-07 and the Risk of Anemia in Middle Aged and Elderly People in Southwest China: A Cross Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2018 Jan 31;10(2):162.
9. Washi SA, Ageib MB. Poor diet quality and food habits are related to impaired nutritional status in 13-to 18-year-old adolescents in Jeddah. Nutrition Research. 2010 Aug 1;30(8):527-34.
10. Rawat R, McCoy SI, Kadiyala S. Poor diet quality is associated with low CD4 count and anemia and predicts mortality among antiretroviral therapy–naive HIV-positive adults in Uganda. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2013 Feb 1;62(2):246-53.
11. Razavi A, Baghshani MR, Rahsepar AA, Ardabili HM, Andalibi MS, Parizadeh SM, Tavallaie S, Mousavi S, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Ferns G. Association between C-reactive protein, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian population. Annals of clinical biochemistry. 2013 Mar;50(2):115-21.
12. Ahmadnezhad M, Asadi Z, Miri HH, Ferns GA, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Ebrahimi-Mamaghani M. Validation of a Short Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adults: a Pilot study. Journal of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics. 2017 Jun 25;3(2).
13. McCullough ML, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Rimm EB, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Diet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2002 Dec 1;76(6):1261-71.
14. Basiotis PP, Carlson A, Gerrior SA, Juan WY, Lino M. The healthy eating index: 1999-2000. US Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. CNPP-12. 2002 Dec:3-5.
15. T Kennedy Ei, Ohls J, Carlson S, Fleming K. The healthy eating index: design and applications. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 1995 Oct 1;95(10):1103-8.
16. Fallaize R, Livingstone KM, Celis-Morales C, Macready AL, San-Cristobal R, Navas-Carretero S, et al. Association between Diet-Quality Scores, Adiposity, Total Cholesterol and Markers of Nutritional Status in European Adults: Findings from the Food4Me Study. Nutrients. 2018;10(1):49.
17. Vargas AJ, Neuhouser ML, George SM, Thomson CA, Ho GY, Rohan TE, et al. Diet quality and colorectal cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. American journal of epidemiology. 2016;184(1):23-32.
18. Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM, Miller PE, Liese AD, Kahle LL, Park Y, et al. Higher Diet Quality Is Associated with Decreased Risk of All-Cause, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer Mortality among Older Adults1, 2. The Journal of nutrition. 2014;144(6):881-9.
19. Kant AK, Schatzkin A, Graubard BI, Schairer C. A prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. Jama. 2000;283(16):2109-15.
20. Weinstein SJ, Vogt TM, Gerrior SA. Healthy Eating Index scores are associated with blood nutrient concentrations in the third National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2004;104(4):576-84.
21. Akbaraly TN, Ferrie JE, Berr C, Brunner EJ, Head J, Marmot MG, et al. Alternative Healthy Eating Index and mortality over 18 y of follow-up: results from the Whitehall II cohort–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2011;94(1):247-53.
22. Mursu J, Steffen LM, Meyer KA, Duprez D, Jacobs Jr DR. Diet quality indexes and mortality in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2013;98(2):444-53.
23. Wang C, Lin X-L, Fan Y-Y, Liu Y-T, Zhang X-L, Lu Y-K, et al. Diet quality scores and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese adults: A case-control study. Nutrients. 2016;8(3):112.
24. Rawat R, McCoy SI, Kadiyala S. Poor diet quality is associated with low CD4 count and anemia and predicts mortality among antiretroviral therapy–naive HIV-positive adults in Uganda. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2013;62(2):246-53.
25. Fargnoli JL, Fung TT, Olenczuk DM, Chamberland JP, Hu FB, Mantzoros CS. Adherence to healthy eating patterns is associated with higher circulating total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin and lower resistin concentrations in women from the Nurses' Health Study–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2008;88(5):1213-24.
26. Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Das UN, Stefanadis C. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet attenuates inflammation and coagulation process in healthy adults: The ATTICA Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2004;44(1):152-8.
27. Barbaresko J, Koch M, Schulze MB, Nöthlings U. Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review. Nutrition reviews. 2013;71(8):511-27.
28. O’Keefe JH, Gheewala NM, O’Keefe JO. Dietary strategies for improving post-prandial glucose, lipids, inflammation, and cardiovascular health. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2008;51(3):249-55.
29. De Koning L, Chiuve S, Fung TT, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Hu FB. Diet-quality scores and the risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes care. 2011:DC_102352.
30. Brown JC, Harhay MO, Harhay MN. Physical activity, diet quality, and mortality among community-dwelling prefrail and frail older adults. Journal of nutrition in gerontology and geriatrics. 2016;35(4):253-66.
31. Bawaked RA, Schröder H, Ribas-Barba L, Izquierdo-Pulido M, Pérez-Rodrigo C, Fíto M, et al. Association of diet quality with dietary inflammatory potential in youth. Food & nutrition research. 2017;61(1):1328961.
32. Alkerwi Aa, Vernier C, Crichton GE, Sauvageot N, Shivappa N, Hébert JR. Cross-comparison of diet quality indices for predicting chronic disease risk: findings from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study. British Journal of Nutrition. 2015;113(2):259-69.
33. Zhang Q, Qin G, Liu Z, Li Z, Li J, Varma DS, et al. Dietary Balance Index-07 and the Risk of Anemia in Middle Aged and Elderly People in Southwest China: A Cross Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2018;10(2):162.
34. Marques-Rocha JL, Milagro FI, Mansego ML, Zulet MA, Bressan J, Martínez JA. Expression of inflammation-related miRNAs in white blood cells from subjects with metabolic syndrome after 8 wk of following a Mediterranean diet–based weight loss program. Nutrition. 2016;32(1):48-55.
35. Whalen KA, McCullough ML, Flanders WD, Hartman TJ, Judd S, Bostick RM. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Balance in Adults–3. The Journal of nutrition. 2016;146(6):1217-26.
36. Milte CM, Russell AP, Ball K, Crawford D, Salmon J, McNaughton SA. Diet quality and telomere length in older Australian men and women. European journal of nutrition. 2018;57(1):363-72.
37. Buttarello M, Plebani M. Automated blood cell counts: state of the art. American journal of clinical pathology. 2008;130(1):104-16.
38. Santimone I, Di Castelnuovo AF, De Curtis A, Spinelli M, Cugino D, Gianfagna F, et al. White blood cells count, sex and age are major determinants of platelet indices heterogeneity in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project. haematologica. 2011:haematol. 2011.043042.
39. Farhangi MA, Keshavarz S-A, Eshraghian M, Ostadrahimi A, Saboor-Yaraghi A-A. White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors. Journal of health, population, and nutrition. 2013;31(1):58.
40. Niu X, Liu G, Huo L, Zhang J, Bai M, Peng Y, et al. Risk stratification based on components of the complete blood count in patients with acute coronary syndrome: A classification and regression tree analysis. Scientific reports. 2018;8(1):2838.
41. Musilova I, Pliskova L, Gerychova R, Janku P, Simetka O, Matlak P, et al. Maternal white blood cell count cannot identify the presence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity or intra-amniotic inflammation in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. PloS one. 2017;12(12):e0189394.
42. Vergis S, Schiffer L, White T, McLeod A, Khudeira N, Demott A, et al. Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake of Urban Overweight and Obese Primarily African American Older Adults with Osteoarthritis. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):485.
43. Boynton A, Neuhouser ML, Wener MH, Wood B, Sorensen B, Chen-Levy Z, et al. Associations between healthy eating patterns and immune function or inflammation in overweight or obese postmenopausal women–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2007;86(5):1445-55.
44. Fung TT, McCullough ML, Newby P, Manson JE, Meigs JB, Rifai N, et al. Diet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005;82(1):163-73.
45. Griep LMO, Wang H, Chan Q. Empirically derived dietary patterns, diet quality scores, and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Current nutrition reports. 2013;2(2):97-104.
46. Mertens E, Markey O, Geleijnse JM, Lovegrove JA, Givens DI. Adherence to a healthy diet in relation to cardiovascular incidence and risk markers: evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. European journal of nutrition. 2018;57(3):1245-58.
47. George SM, Neuhouser ML, Mayne ST, Irwin ML, Albanes D, Gail MH, et al. Postdiagnosis diet quality is inversely related to a biomarker of inflammation among breast cancer survivors. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers. 2010:1055-9965. EPI-10-0464.
48. Mohammadshahi M, Haidari F, Karandish M, Ebrahimi S, Haghighizadeh M-H. A randomized clinical trial of nutrition education for improvement of diet quality and inflammation in Iranian obese women. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2014;2014.
49. Dias JA, Wirfält E, Drake I, Gullberg B, Hedblad B, Persson M, et al. A high quality diet is associated with reduced systemic inflammation in middle-aged individuals. Atherosclerosis. 2015;238(1):38-44.