Main Article Content
Michelangelo Buonarroti, The Crucifixion of Saint Peter, Fresco, Hidden signature, Sign language, Deaf.
Since antiquity, specialists have worked to facilitate the communication of hearing impaired individuals, which according to the current literature, is among the disabilities that have the greatest impact on the quality of life. The system by which deaf people communicate is based essentially on sign language and the manual alphabet, employing gestures, and facial and body expressions. Although there is no exact data on how many people communicated through sign language in ancient times, studies show manual alphabets were used by deaf people in Europe in the early 15th century. Perhaps this was a reflection of a significant number of deaf people living throughout Europe at that time and who needed sign language to communicate. In this context, this manuscript, for the first time, demonstrates the renowned Italian Renaissance artist and genius of human anatomy Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) may have used deaf sign language in the fresco The Crucifixion of Saint Peter [Cappella Paolina, Vatican City, Italy]. This would demonstrate the engagement of one of the greatest Renaissance artists, with a clinical condition that has been studied by numerous health specialists since ancient times.
2. Fenton T. Communicating without Speech: Practical Augmentative and Alternative Communication. J R Soc Med 2002; 95: 627-628.
3. Emmett SD and West KP. Gestational vitamin A deficiency: A novel cause of sensorineural hearing loss in the developing world? Med Hypotheses 2014; 82: 6-10.
4. Frank A. Deaf Families' Unique Experiences and Obstacles. J Soc Work Disabil Rehabil 2017; 16: 216-229.
5. Brentari D. Sign Languages. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2010.
6. Johnston T, Schembri A. Australian Sign Language (Auslan): An introduction to sign language linguistics. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2007.
7. Magarotto C. Vocabolario della lingua gestuale italiana dei sordi. Roma: Armando Editore; 1996.
8. Sandler W. The Body as Evidence for the Nature of Language. Front Psychol 2018; 9: 1782.
9. Blech B, Doliner R. The Sistine Secrets: Michelangelo`s Forbidden Messages in the Heart of the Vatican. New York: HarperCollins Publishers; 2008.
10. Bragg L. Chaucer's monogram and the ‘Hoccleve portrait’ tradition. Word & Image: A Journal of Verbal/Visual Enquiry 1996; 12: 127-142.
11. Alvarez G, Ceballos FC. Royal Inbreeding and the Extinction of Lineages of the Habsburg Dynasty. Hum Hered 2015; 80: 62-68.
12. Bittles AH, Black ML. Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Consanguinity, human evolution, and complex diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107: 1779-1786.
13. Cupp MA, Adams M, Heys M, Lakhanpaul M, Alexander EC, Milner Y, et al. Exploring perceptions of consanguineous unions with women from an East London community: analysis of discussion groups. J Community Genet. Epub ahead of print 16 July 2019. DOI: 10.1007/s12687-019-00429-4.
14. Vasari G. Vida de Michelangelo Buonarroti: florentino, pintor, escultor e arquiteto (1568) / Giorgio Vasari; tradução, introdução e comentário: Luiz Marques. Campinas: Editora da Unicamp; 2011.
15. Strauss RM, Marzo-Ortega H. Michelangelo and medicine. J R Soc Med 2002; 95: 514-515.
16. Di Bella S, Taglietti F, Iacobuzio A, Johnson E, Baiocchini A, Petrosillo N. The "delivery" of Adam: a medical interpretation of Michelangelo. Mayo Clin Proc 2015; 90: 505-508.
17. De Campos D, Oxley Da Rocha A, De Oliveira Lemos R, Malysz T, Antonio Bonatto-Costa J, Pereira Jotz G, et al. Pagan symbols associated with the female anatomy in the Medici Chapel by Michelangelo Buonarroti. Clin Anat 2017; 30: 572-577.
18. De Campos D. A hidden rib found in Michelangelo Buonarroti's fresco The Creation of Adam. Clin Anat 2019; 32: 648-653.