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Coexistence, Overweight; Obesity; Stunting; Mothers, Child, Lagos, Nigeria
Background: The coexistence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition is emerging as a public health problem in many low and middle income countries. This study aimed at determining prevalence of coexisting maternal overweight and obesity with childhood stunting (MOCS) and the associated socio-demographic factors in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross sectional survey conducted using the multistage random sampling technique. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, consisting of 150 each from rural and urban communities. Maternal overweight and obesity and undernutrition in children were determined using standard criteria. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among mothers was significantly higher in urban than rural areas (50.7% vs. 41.3%; p=0.022) while the prevalence of childhood stunting was significantly higher in rural than urban areas (43.3% 12.6%; p<0.001). Coexisting maternal overweight and obesity with childhood stunting was observed in 31 (10.3%) mother-child pair with a significantly higher prevalence in rural than urban areas (14.7% vs. 6.0%, p=0.014). In multivariate logistic regression, maternal short stature (OR 3.3, 95% CI=1.2-9.0, p=0.02) and living in rural area (OR 0.2, 95% CI=0.1-0.5, p=0.001) were the identified risk factors for coexisting maternal overweight and obesity with childhood stunting. Conclusion: The prevalence of coexisting MOCS is high especially in rural areas. Effort at reducing childhood malnutrition should focus on appropriate interventional measures aimed at improving maternal nutritional status.