What to expect after revision shoulder arthroplasty? A comprehensive review of the literature

Main Article Content

Giovanni Merolla
Riccardo D'Ambrosi
Matteo Buda
Giuseppe Sircana
Enrico Bellato
Valentina Fogliata
Mauro De Cupis
Luigi Tarallo
Gian Mario Micheloni
John W Sperling


shoulder arthroplasty anatomical reverse glenoid humeral bone loss revision


The number of shoulder arthroplasties has increased tremendously over the last twenty years, creating a proportional increase in complications rates and revision. Shoulder arthroplasty surgeon should have a clear understanding of the reasons for failure based on the specific index procedure that was performed. The main challenge includes the need for component removal and managing glenoid and humeral bone defects. This manuscript aims to outline the most common indications for revision surgery and treatment options based on a careful and detailed review of the available literature.  This paper should help the surgeon in patient evaluation and selection of the optimal procedure for an individual patient.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 148 | PDF Downloads 104


1. Matsen FA, 3rd, Iannotti JP, Churchill RS et al. One and two-year clinical outcomes for a polyethylene glenoid with a fluted peg: one thousand two hundred seventy individual patients from eleven centers. Int Orthop 2019;43:367-378. DOI 10.1007/s00264-018-4213-3
2. Matsen FA, 3rd, Clinton J, Lynch J et al. Glenoid component failure in total shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2008;90:885-896. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.G.01263
3. Godeneche A, Garret J, Barth J et al. Comparison of revision rates and radiographic observations of long and short, uncoated and coated humeral stem designs in total shoulder arthroplasty. EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:70-76. DOI 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180046
4. Fox TJ, Foruria AM, Klika BJ et al. Radiographic survival in total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2013;22:1221-1227. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2012.12.034
5. Boileau P, Watkinson D, Hatzidakis AM et al. Neer Award 2005: The Grammont reverse shoulder prosthesis: results in cuff tear arthritis, fracture sequelae, and revision arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2006;15:527-540. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2006.01.003
6. Matsen FA RCAJ, Wirth MA, Lippitt SB. Glenohumeral arthritis and its management In: Rockwood CA Jr MF (ed) The Shoulder 1998. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 840-964.
7. Pearl ML. Proximal humeral anatomy in shoulder arthroplasty: Implications for prosthetic design and surgical technique. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2005;14:99S-104S. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2004.09.025
8. Harryman DT, Sidles JA, Harris SL et al. The effect of articular conformity and the size of the humeral head component on laxity and motion after glenohumeral arthroplasty. A study in cadavera. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995;77:555-563. DOI 10.2106/00004623-199504000-00008
9. Jobe CM, Iannotti JP. Limits imposed on glenohumeral motion by joint geometry. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1995;4:281-285. DOI 10.1016/s1058-2746(05)80021-7
10. Youderian AR, Ricchetti ET, Drews M et al. Determination of humeral head size in anatomic shoulder replacement for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2014;23:955-963. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2013.09.005
11. Knowles NK, Carroll MJ, Keener JD et al. A comparison of normal and osteoarthritic humeral head size and morphology. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2016;25:502-509. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2015.08.047
12. Schneider DJ LT. The Biomechanics of total shoulder arthroplasty. Oper Tech Orthop 2002;12:2-9. DOI 10.1053/otor.2002.34439
13. Schoch B, Abboud J, Namdari S et al. Glenohumeral Mismatch in Anatomic Total Shoulder Arthroplasty. JBJS Rev 2017;5:e1. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.17.00014
14. Hasler A, Meyer DC, Tondelli T et al. Radiographic performance depends on the radial glenohumeral mismatch in total shoulder arthroplasty. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020;21:206. DOI 10.1186/s12891-020-03219-z
15. Sabesan VJ, Ackerman J, Sharma V et al. Glenohumeral mismatch affects micromotion of cemented glenoid components in total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2015;24:814-822. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2014.10.004
16. Gauci MO, Boileau P, Baba M et al. Patient-specific glenoid guides provide accuracy and reproducibility in total shoulder arthroplasty. Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1080-1085. DOI 10.1302/0301-620X.98B8.37257
17. Terrier A, Ramondetti S, Merlini F et al. Biomechanical consequences of humeral component malpositioning after anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2010;19:1184-1190. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2010.06.006
18. Warren RF, Coleman SH, Dines JS. Instability after arthroplasty: the shoulder. J Arthroplasty 2002;17:28-31. DOI 10.1054/arth.2002.32543
19. Entezari V, Henry T, Zmistowski B et al. Clinically significant subscapularis failure after anatomic shoulder arthroplasty: is it worth repairing? J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020;29:1831-1835. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2020.01.070
20. van de Bunt F, Pearl ML, Lee EK et al. Glenoid version by CT scan: an analysis of clinical measurement error and introduction of a protocol to reduce variability. Skeletal Radiol 2015;44:1627-1635. DOI 10.1007/s00256-015-2207-4
21. Bercik MJ, Kruse K, 2nd, Yalizis M et al. A modification to the Walch classification of the glenoid in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis using three-dimensional imaging. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2016;25:1601-1606. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2016.03.010
22. Grey SG, Wright TW, Flurin PH et al. Clinical and radiographic outcomes with a posteriorly augmented glenoid for Walch B glenoids in anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020;29:e185-e195. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2019.10.008
23. Cvetanovich GL, Naylor AJ, O'Brien MC et al. Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty with an inlay glenoid component: clinical outcomes and return to activity. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020;29:1188-1196. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2019.10.003
24. Gates S, Cutler H, Khazzam M. Outcomes of Posterior Glenoid Bone-Grafting in Anatomical Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review. JBJS Rev 2019;7:e6. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.19.00005
25. Levine WN, Fischer CR, Nguyen D et al. Long-term follow-up of shoulder hemiarthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2012;94:e164. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.K.00603
26. Papadonikolakis A, Matsen FA, 3rd. Metal-Backed Glenoid Components Have a Higher Rate of Failure and Fail by Different Modes in Comparison with All-Polyethylene Components: A Systematic Review. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2014;96:1041-1047. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.M.00674
27. Goodman S, Wang JS, Doshi A et al. Difference in bone ingrowth after one versus two daily episodes of micromotion: experiments with titanium chambers in rabbits. J Biomed Mater Res 1993;27:1419-1424. DOI 10.1002/jbm.820271109
28. Goodman SB, Song Y, Doshi A et al. Cessation of strain facilitates bone formation in the micromotion chamber implanted in the rabbit tibia. Biomaterials 1994;15:889-893. DOI 10.1016/0142-9612(94)90112-0
29. Churchill RS, Boorman RS, Fehringer EV et al. Glenoid cementing may generate sufficient heat to endanger the surrounding bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004:76-79. DOI 10.1097/00003086-200402000-00013
30. Berman AT, Reid JS, Yanicko DR, Jr. et al. Thermally induced bone necrosis in rabbits. Relation to implant failure in humans. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1984:284-292
31. Li C, Kotha S, Huang CH et al. Finite element thermal analysis of bone cement for joint replacements. J Biomech Eng 2003;125:315-322. DOI 10.1115/1.1571853
32. Marigi EM, Duquin T.R., Throckmorton T.Q. et al. Hybrid fixation in anatomic shoulder arthroplasty: surgical technique and review of the literature. JSES Reviews, Reports, and Techniques 2021;1:113-117. DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xrrt.2021.01.005
33. Merolla G, Di Pietto F, Romano S et al. Radiographic analysis of shoulder anatomical arthroplasty. Eur J Radiol 2008;68:159-169. DOI 10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.07.021
34. Saltzman MD, Marecek GS, Edwards SL et al. Infection after shoulder surgery. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2011;19:208-218. DOI 10.5435/00124635-201104000-00005
35. LaChaud GY, Schoch BS, Wright TW et al. Humeral stem lucencies correlate with clinical outcomes in anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. JSES Int 2020;4:669-674. DOI 10.1016/j.jseint.2020.03.011
36. Romeo AA, Thorsness RJ, Sumner SA et al. Short-term clinical outcome of an anatomic short-stem humeral component in total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018;27:70-74. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2017.05.026
37. Szerlip BW, Morris BJ, Laughlin MS et al. Clinical and radiographic outcomes after total shoulder arthroplasty with an anatomic press-fit short stem. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018;27:10-16. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2017.08.012
38. Grammont PM, Baulot E. Delta shoulder prosthesis for rotator cuff rupture. Orthopedics 1993;16:65-68
39. Boileau P, Watkinson DJ, Hatzidakis AM et al. Grammont reverse prosthesis: design, rationale, and biomechanics. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2005;14:147S-161S. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2004.10.006
40. Crosby LA, Hamilton A, Twiss T. Scapula fractures after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: classification and treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2011;469:2544-2549. DOI 10.1007/s11999-011-1881-3
41. Hamid N, Connor PM, Fleischli JF et al. Acromial fracture after reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 2011;40:E125-129
42. Ackland DC, Patel M, Knox D. Prosthesis design and placement in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Orthop Surg Res 2015;10:101. DOI 10.1186/s13018-015-0244-2
43. Chae J, Siljander M, Wiater JM. Instability in Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2018;26:587-596. DOI 10.5435/JAAOS-D-16-00408
44. Padegimas EM, Zmistowski BM, Restrepo C et al. Instability After Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: Which Patients Dislocate? Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) 2016;45:E444-E450
45. Chalmers PN, Rahman Z, Romeo AA et al. Early dislocation after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2014;23:737-744. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2013.08.015
46. Boileau P, Melis B, Duperron D et al. Revision surgery of reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2013;22:1359-1370. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2013.02.004
47. Ladermann A, Walch G, Lubbeke A et al. Influence of arm lengthening in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2012;21:336-341. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2011.04.020
48. Boileau P. Complications and revision of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2016;102:S33-43. DOI 10.1016/j.otsr.2015.06.031
49. Tashjian RZ, Martin BI, Ricketts CA et al. Superior Baseplate Inclination Is Associated With Instability After Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2018;476:1622-1629. DOI 10.1097/CORR.0000000000000340
50. Cuff D, Levy JC, Gutierrez S et al. Torsional stability of modular and non-modular reverse shoulder humeral components in a proximal humeral bone loss model. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2011;20:646-651. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2010.10.026
51. Bacle G, Nove-Josserand L, Garaud P et al. Long-Term Outcomes of Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Follow-up of a Previous Study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2017;99:454-461. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.16.00223
52. Boileau P, Rumian AP, Zumstein MA. Reversed shoulder arthroplasty with modified L'Episcopo for combined loss of active elevation and external rotation. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2010;19:20-30. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2009.12.011
53. Valenti P, Sauzieres P, Katz D et al. Do less medialized reverse shoulder prostheses increase motion and reduce notching? Clin Orthop Relat Res 2011;469:2550-2557. DOI 10.1007/s11999-011-1844-8
54. Frankle M, Siegal S, Pupello D et al. The Reverse Shoulder Prosthesis for glenohumeral arthritis associated with severe rotator cuff deficiency. A minimum two-year follow-up study of sixty patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005;87:1697-1705. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.D.02813
55. Nolte PC, Miles JW, Tanghe KK et al. The effect of glenosphere lateralization and inferiorization on deltoid force in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2020.10.038
56. Ladermann A, Denard PJ, Boileau P et al. Effect of humeral stem design on humeral position and range of motion in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Int Orthop 2015;39:2205-2213. DOI 10.1007/s00264-015-2984-3
57. Merolla G, Walch G, Ascione F et al. Grammont humeral design versus onlay curved-stem reverse shoulder arthroplasty: comparison of clinical and radiographic outcomes with minimum 2-year follow-up. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018;27:701-710. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2017.10.016
58. Routman HD, Simovitch RW, Wright TW et al. Acromial and Scapular Fractures After Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty with a Medialized Glenoid and Lateralized Humeral Implant: An Analysis of Outcomes and Risk Factors. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020;102:1724-1733. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.19.00724
59. Jauregui JJ, Nadarajah V, Shield WP, 3rd et al. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty: Perioperative Considerations and Complications. JBJS Rev 2018;6:e3. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.17.00152
60. Hsu JE, Somerson JS, Vo KV et al. What is a "periprosthetic shoulder infection"? A systematic review of two decades of publications. Int Orthop 2017;41:813-822. DOI 10.1007/s00264-017-3421-6
61. Merolla G, Wagner E, Sperling JW et al. Revision of failed shoulder hemiarthroplasty to reverse total arthroplasty: analysis of 157 revision implants. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018;27:75-81. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2017.06.038
62. Sperling JW, Cofield RH, Rowland CM. Neer hemiarthroplasty and Neer total shoulder arthroplasty in patients fifty years old or less. Long-term results. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1998;80:464-473. DOI 10.2106/00004623-199804000-00002
63. Hackett DJ, Jr., Hsu JE, Matsen FA, 3rd. Primary Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty: What Can Be Learned From 359 Cases That Were Surgically Revised? Clin Orthop Relat Res 2018;476:1031-1040. DOI 10.1007/s11999.0000000000000167
64. Irlenbusch U, Zenz P, Blatter G et al. Adjustable stemmed shoulder hemiarthroplasty: Ten-year results of a prospective multicentre study. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2019;105:229-236. DOI 10.1016/j.otsr.2018.09.017
65. Sperling JW, Cofield RH, Rowland CM. Minimum fifteen-year follow-up of Neer hemiarthroplasty and total shoulder arthroplasty in patients aged fifty years or younger. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2004;13:604-613. DOI 10.1016/S1058274604001296
66. Strauss EJ, Verma NN, Salata MJ et al. The high failure rate of biologic resurfacing of the glenoid in young patients with glenohumeral arthritis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2014;23:409-419. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2013.06.001
67. Sheth MM, Sholder D, Abboud J et al. Revision of failed hemiarthroplasty for painful glenoid arthrosis to anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018;27:1884-1890. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2018.03.018
68. Merolla G, Tartarone A, Sperling JW et al. Early clinical and radiological outcomes of reverse shoulder arthroplasty with an eccentric all-polyethylene glenosphere to treat failed hemiarthroplasty and the sequelae of proximal humeral fractures. Int Orthop 2017;41:141-148. DOI 10.1007/s00264-016-3188-1
69. Sheth MM, Sholder D, Getz CL et al. Revision of failed hemiarthroplasty and anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty to reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019;28:1074-1081. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2018.10.026
70. Wagner ER, Houdek MT, Hernandez NM et al. Cement-within-cement technique in revision reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2017;26:1448-1453. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2017.01.013
71. Roberson TA, Bentley JC, Griscom JT et al. Outcomes of total shoulder arthroplasty in patients younger than 65 years: a systematic review. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2017;26:1298-1306. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2016.12.069
72. Welsher A, Gohal C, Madden K et al. A comparison of pegged vs. keeled glenoid components regarding functional and radiographic outcomes in anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JSES Open Access 2019;3:136-144 e131. DOI 10.1016/j.jses.2019.04.002
73. Denard PJ, Walch G. Current concepts in the surgical management of primary glenohumeral arthritis with a biconcave glenoid. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2013;22:1589-1598. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2013.06.017
74. Luedke C, Kissenberth MJ, Tolan SJ et al. Outcomes of Anatomic Total Shoulder Arthroplasty with B2 Glenoids: A Systematic Review. JBJS Rev 2018;6:e7. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.17.00112
75. Ma CB, Xiao W, Salesky M et al. Do glenoid retroversion and humeral subluxation affect outcomes following total shoulder arthroplasty? JSES Int 2020;4:649-656. DOI 10.1016/j.jseint.2020.04.009
76. Aibinder WR, Schoch B, Schleck C et al. Revisions for aseptic glenoid component loosening after anatomic shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2017;26:443-449. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2016.08.009
77. Bonnevialle N, Melis B, Neyton L et al. Aseptic glenoid loosening or failure in total shoulder arthroplasty: revision with glenoid reimplantation. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2013;22:745-751. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2012.08.009
78. Hernandez NM, Chalmers BP, Wagner ER et al. Revision to Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Restores Stability for Patients With Unstable Shoulder Prostheses. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2017;475:2716-2722. DOI 10.1007/s11999-017-5429-z
79. Walker M, Willis MP, Brooks JP et al. The use of the reverse shoulder arthroplasty for treatment of failed total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2012;21:514-522. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2011.03.006
80. Abdel MP, Hattrup SJ, Sperling JW et al. Revision of an unstable hemiarthroplasty or anatomical total shoulder replacement using a reverse design prosthesis. Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:668-672. DOI 10.1302/0301-620X.95B5.30964
81. Sanchez-Sotelo J, Sperling JW, Rowland CM et al. Instability after shoulder arthroplasty: results of surgical treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2003;85:622-631
82. Wieser K, Borbas P, Ek ET et al. Conversion of stemmed hemi- or total to reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: advantages of a modular stem design. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2015;473:651-660. DOI 10.1007/s11999-014-3985-z
83. Weber-Spickschen TS, Alfke D, Agneskirchner JD. The use of a modular system to convert an anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty to a reverse shoulder arthroplasty: Clinical and radiological results. Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1662-1667. DOI 10.1302/0301-620X.97B12.35176
84. Gogna P, Paladini P, Merolla G et al. Metallosis in shoulder arthroplasty: an integrative review of literature. Musculoskelet Surg 2016;100:3-11. DOI 10.1007/s12306-016-0408-1
85. Castagna A, Delcogliano M, de Caro F et al. Conversion of shoulder arthroplasty to reverse implants: clinical and radiological results using a modular system. Int Orthop 2013;37:1297-1305. DOI 10.1007/s00264-013-1907-4
86. Kim DM, Aldeghaither M, Alabdullatif F et al. Loosening and revision rates after total shoulder arthroplasty: a systematic review of cemented all-polyethylene glenoid and three modern designs of metal-backed glenoid. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020;21:114. DOI 10.1186/s12891-020-3135-6
87. Porcellini G, Micheloni GM, Tarallo L et al. Custom-made reverse shoulder arthroplasty for severe glenoid bone loss: review of the literature and our preliminary results. J Orthop Traumatol 2021;22:2. DOI 10.1186/s10195-020-00564-6
88. Alentorn-Geli E, Wanderman NR, Assenmacher AT et al. Revision anatomic shoulder arthroplasty with posterior capsular plication for correction of posterior instability. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2018;26:2309499018789527. DOI 10.1177/2309499018789527
89. Dodson CC, Craig EV, Cordasco FA et al. Propionibacterium acnes infection after shoulder arthroplasty: a diagnostic challenge. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2010;19:303-307. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2009.07.065
90. Mook WR, Garrigues GE. Diagnosis and Management of Periprosthetic Shoulder Infections. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2014;96:956-965. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.M.00402
91. Egglestone A, Ingoe H, Rees J et al. Scoping review: Diagnosis and management of periprosthetic joint infection in shoulder arthroplasty. Shoulder Elbow 2019;11:167-181. DOI 10.1177/1758573218779076
92. Padegimas EM, Maltenfort M, Ramsey ML et al. Periprosthetic shoulder infection in the United States: incidence and economic burden. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2015;24:741-746. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2014.11.044
93. Atkins BL, Athanasou N, Deeks JJ et al. Prospective evaluation of criteria for microbiological diagnosis of prosthetic-joint infection at revision arthroplasty. The OSIRIS Collaborative Study Group. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:2932-2939. DOI 10.1128/JCM.36.10.2932-2939.1998
94. Butler-Wu SM, Burns EM, Pottinger PS et al. Optimization of periprosthetic culture for diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes prosthetic joint infection. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:2490-2495. DOI 10.1128/JCM.00450-11
95. Shannon SK, Mandrekar J, Gustafson DR et al. Anaerobic thioglycolate broth culture for recovery of Propionibacterium acnes from shoulder tissue and fluid specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2013;51:731-732. DOI 10.1128/JCM.02695-12
96. Grosso MJ, Frangiamore SJ, Yakubek G et al. Performance of implant sonication culture for the diagnosis of periprosthetic shoulder infection. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018;27:211-216. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2017.08.008
97. Portillo ME, Salvado M, Alier A et al. Prosthesis failure within 2 years of implantation is highly predictive of infection. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2013;471:3672-3678. DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3200-7
98. Garrigues GE, Zmistowski B, Cooper AM et al. Proceedings from the 2018 International Consensus Meeting on Orthopedic Infections: evaluation of periprosthetic shoulder infection. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019;28:S32-S66. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2019.04.016
99. Yoon HK, Cho SH, Lee DY et al. A Review of the Literature on Culture-Negative Periprosthetic Joint Infection: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. Knee Surg Relat Res 2017;29:155-164. DOI 10.5792/ksrr.16.034
100. Belay ES, Danilkowicz R, Bullock G et al. Single-stage versus two-stage revision for shoulder periprosthetic joint infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020;29:2476-2486. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2020.05.034
101. Aim F, Marion B, Kerroumi Y et al. One- or two-stage exchange for periprosthetic shoulder infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2020;106:5-15. DOI 10.1016/j.otsr.2019.10.016
102. Levy JC, Triplet J, Everding N. Use of a Functional Antibiotic Spacer in Treating Infected Shoulder Arthroplasty. Orthopedics 2015;38:e512-519. DOI 10.3928/01477447-20150603-60
103. Patrick M, Vincent HK, Farmer KW et al. Management of infected shoulder arthroplasty: a comparison of treatment strategies. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019;28:1658-1665. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2019.03.001
104. Boileau P, Gauci MO, Wagner ER et al. The reverse shoulder arthroplasty angle: a new measurement of glenoid inclination for reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019;28:1281-1290. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2018.11.074
105. Ho JC, Thakar O, Chan WW et al. Early radiographic failure of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty with structural bone graft for glenoid bone loss. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020;29:550-560. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2019.07.035
106. Bartels DW, Marigi E, Sperling JW et al. Revision Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty for Anatomical Glenoid Component Loosening Was Not Universally Successful: A Detailed Analysis of 127 Consecutive Shoulders. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021;103:879-886. DOI 10.2106/JBJS.20.00555
107. Duquin TR, Matthews JR, Dubiel MJ et al. Running Out of Room: Managing Humeral and Glenoid Bone Loss in Shoulder Arthroplasty. Instr Course Lect 2019;68:79-90
108. Rangarajan R, Blout CK, Patel VV et al. Early results of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty using a patient-matched glenoid implant for severe glenoid bone deficiency. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020;29:S139-S148. DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2020.04.024

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>