An SBQ-R assessment of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of young adults in North India COVID-19 pandemic and mental health

Main Article Content

Deepika Rani
Kewal Krishan
Nilesh Tumram
Utsav Parekh
Tanuj Kanchan


COVID-19 Pandemic, Mental Health, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), Suicidality



Background and aim: During the COVID-19 pandemic in India, an increase in the number of suicides was observed in India. Therefore, the present study aims to explore various factors affecting the mental health of an individual and their consequences. Moreover, it has been attempted to assess the suicidal risk in the population of North India by using the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R).

Methodology: The young adults from the North Indian population belonging to the age group of 18 to 35 years (24.93±4.42 years) have been incorporated into the study. A total of 190 responses (102 males and 88 females) were recorded through online mode. The present questionnaire has incorporated the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) and some of the parameters taken from the psychology today online survey.

Results: The demographic characteristics of the respondents were described by using frequencies and percentages, means, and standard deviations. Cronbach’s alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), and the Bartlett sphericity were calculated. The mean SBQ-R score was recorded to be 4.62±1.5. Further, during the factor analysis with the principal component method, seven factors have explained the 70.797% of the cumulative variance with an eigenvalue of 1.

Conclusions: The SBQ-R assessment revealed a minimal risk of suicidal behavior but the frequency distribution of the parameters taken for the psychological assessment has highlighted that anxiousness or worriedness has a significant impact on the mental health of the population at risk. Therefore, it is recommended that some precautionary measures, such as online mental health services, should be taken by the health ministry to keep the population healthy.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 77 | PDF Downloads 37


1. Constitution. Who we are? The World Health Organization. Available: 2020. Assessed 12 August 2021.
2. Krishan K, Kanchan T. Lockdown is an effective ‘vaccine’ against COVID-19: A message from India. J Infect Dev Ctries 2020;14(6):545-546.
3. Chakraborty P. Aug sees 38 suicides so far. Are rising Covid-19 cases to blame?. The times of India. Available: 2020. Assessed 10 May 2021.
4. National Herald. Shocking! COVID-19 takes its toll; Gurugram records 240 suicides in just 8 months this year. Available: 2020. Assessed 10 May 2021.
5. Times now digital. Amid COVID-19 outbreak, India’s suicide epidemic remains unaddressed-these graphs show how. Available: 2020. Accessed 12 May 2021.
6. Semo BW, Frissa SM. The Mental Health Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Sub-Saharan Africa. Psychol Res Behav Manag 2020;13:713–720.
7. Thakur V, Jain A. COVID 2019-suicides: A global psychological pandemic. Brain Behav Immun 2020;88:952–953.
8. Griffiths MD, Mamun MA. COVID-19 suicidal behavior among couples and suicide pacts: Case study evidence from press reports. Psychiatry Res 2020;289:113105.
9. Vahia IV, Jeste DV, Reynolds CF. Older Adults and the Mental Health Effects of COVID-19. JAMA 2020;324(22):2253-2254.
10. Ornell F, Schuch JB, Sordi AO, Kessler FHP. "Pandemic fear" and COVID-19: mental health burden and strategies. Braz J Psychiatry 2020;42(3):232-235.
11. Hindustan Times. Fearing he had contracted coronavirus, man locks family, kills himself. Available: commitssuicide-in-andhra-pradesh-feared-he-had-contracted-coronavirus-says family/storynECI2mhrvB5FiX2vHruFcK.html. 2020. Accessed 9 May 2021.
12. Goyal K, Chauhan P, Chhikara K, Gupta P, Singh MP. Fear of COVID 2019: first suicidal case in India!. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;49:101989.
13. India’s poverty profile. The Word Bank-IBRD-IDA. Available: 2020. Accessed 10 May 2021.
14. The Hindu. Kerala class X girl ends life allegedly over lack of access to online classes. Available: classes/article31728470.ece. 2020. Accessed 10 May 2021.
15. Lathabhavan R, Griffiths M. First case of student suicide in India due to the COVID-19 education crisis: A brief report and preventive measures. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;53:102202.
16. Haider T. Decomposed body of AIIMS doctor found hanging at his residence. New Delhi. India Today news. Available: 2020. Accessed 10 May 2021.
17. Joseph JP. Suicides among doctors were too common in India. Then the pandemic came, Science the wire. Available: 2020. Accessed10 May 2021.
18. Kapoor C. COVID-19 financial crisis: Indian family commits suicide. Anadolu Agency: 100 years. Available: 2020. Accessed 8August 2021.
19. Liu S, Yang L, Zhang C, et al. Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7(4):e17-e18.
20. World Health Organization. Mental health: strengthening our response. Newsroom. Available: 2020. Assessed 10 Set 2021.
21. National Health Service (NHS). 2020. Accessed 10 May 2021.
22. Fluetsch N, Levy C, Tallon L. The relationship of physical activity to mental health: A 2015 behavioral risk factor surveillance system data analysis. J Affect Disord 2019;253:96–101.
23. Mental health assessment. Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers. LLC. Available: 2020. Accessed 10 Sept 2021.
24. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. 2013. Arlington VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013.
25. Osman et al. The Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). Stable resource toolkit. Available: 1999. Accessed 10 Sept 2021.
26. Osman A, Bagge CL, Gutierrez PM, Konick LC, Kopper BA, Barrios FX. The Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R): validation with clinical and non-clinical samples. Assessment 2001;8(4):443-54.
27. Aloba O, Ojeleye O, Aloba T. The psychometric characteristics of the 4-item Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) as a screening tool in a non-clinical sample of Nigerian university students. Asian J Psychiatr 2017;26:46-51.
28. Cassidy SA, Bradley L, Bowen E, Wigham S, Rodgers J. Measurement properties of tools used to assess suicidality in autistic and general population adults: A systematic review. ClinPsychol Rev 2018;62:56–70.
29. Fitzpatrick KM, Harris C, Drawve G. How bad is it? Suicidality in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2020;50(6):1241–1249.
30. Amini-Tehrani M, Nasiri M, Jalali T, Sadeghi R, Ghotbi A, Zamanian H. Validation and psychometric properties of Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) in Iran. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;47:101856.
31. Rueda-Jaimes GE, Corzo-Casasadiego JD, Moreno-Quijano C, Camacho PA. Validity of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised in patients with short-term suicide risk. Eur J Psychiat 2017;31(4):145-150.
32. Cassidy SA, Bradley L, Cogger‑Ward H, Shaw R, Bowen E, Glod M, Baron-Cohen S, Rodgers J. Measurement Properties of the Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire‑Revised in Autistic Adults. J Autism Dev Disord 2020;50:3477–3488.
33. Czeisler ME, Lane RI, Petrosky E, Wiley JF, Christensen A, Njai R, Weaver MD, Robbins R, Facer-Childs ER, Barger LK, Czeisler CA, Howard ME, Rajaratnam SMW. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Suicidal Ideation During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2020;69(32):1-9.

Most read articles by the same author(s)