SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) Variant: No Time to Wait!

Main Article Content

Shayan Rahmani https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4515-9587
Nima Rezaei

Keywords

SARS-CoV-2, Covid-19, Omicron, variant of concern, mutation, infection, transmissibility, immune escape, protective recommendations, international collaboration

Abstract

On November 26th, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), B.1.1.529, was designated by the World Health Organization (WHO), named Omicron, and classified as a variant of concern (VOC). The news raised an international alarm about a new wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) outbreak, since Omicron has a large group of mutations which may affect the way it spread, cause disease, and escape from the immunity. Therefore, it is essential to take a closer look at how it has emerged, how it may sustain the pandemic, and how we can act correspondingly, both nationally and internationally, to help control the spreading of the disease.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 58 | PDF Downloads 39

References

1. World Health Organization. Classification of Omicron (B.1.1.529): SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern. 26 November 2021. https://www.who.int/news/item/26-11-2021-classification-of-omicron-(b.1.1.529)-sars-cov-2-variant-of-concern.
2. GISAID. Tracking of Variants. https://www.gisaid.org/hcov19-variants/.
3. World Health Organization. Update on Omicron. 28 November 2021. https://www.who.int/news/item/28-11-2021-update-on-omicron.
4. Callaway E. Heavily mutated Omicron variant puts scientists on alert. Nature. 2021;600(7887):21.
5. Pulliam JRC, van Schalkwyk C, Govender N, von Gottberg A, Cohen C, Groome MJ, et al. Increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection associated with emergence of the Omicron variant in South Africa. medRxiv. 2021:2021.11.11.21266068.
6. World Health Organization. Enhancing Readiness for Omicron (B.1.1.529): Technical Brief and Priority Actions for Member States. 17 December 2021. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/enhancing-readiness-for-omicron-(b.1.1.529)-technical-brief-and-priority-actions-for-member-states.
7. Omicron (B.1.1.529) Mutations. Stanford University Coronavirus Antiviral & Resistance Database. https://covdb.stanford.edu/page/mutation-viewer/#omicron.
8. Hossain MK, Hassanzadeganroudsari M, Apostolopoulos V. The emergence of new strains of SARS-CoV-2. What does it mean for COVID-19 vaccines? Expert Review of Vaccines. 2021;20(6):635-8.
9. Variant: 21K (Omicron). CoVariants. https://covariants.org/variants/21K.Omicron.
10. Johnson BA, Xie X, Bailey AL, Kalveram B, Lokugamage KG, Muruato A, et al. Loss of furin cleavage site attenuates SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Nature. 2021;591(7849):293-9.
11. Delta (B.1.617.2) Mutations. Stanford University Coronavirus Antiviral & Resistance Database. https://covdb.stanford.edu/page/mutation-viewer/#sec_b-1-617-2.
12. Kumar S, Thambiraja TS, Karuppanan K, Subramaniam G. Omicron and Delta Variant of SARS-CoV-2: A Comparative Computational Study of Spike protein. bioRxiv. 2021:2021.12.02.470946.
13. Pascarella S, Ciccozzi M, Bianchi M, Benvenuto D, Cauda R, Cassone A. The Electrostatic Potential of the Omicron Variant Spike is Higher than in Delta and Delta-plus Variants: a Hint to Higher Transmissibility? Journal of Medical Virology.n/a(n/a).
14. Grabowski F, Kochańczyk M, Lipniacki T. Omicron strain spreads with the doubling time of 3.2—3.6 days in South Africa province of Gauteng that achieved herd immunity to Delta variant. medRxiv. 2021:2021.12.08.21267494.
15. Wilhelm A, Widera M, Grikscheit K, Toptan T, Schenk B, Pallas C, et al. Reduced Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant by Vaccine Sera and monoclonal antibodies. medRxiv. 2021:2021.12.07.21267432.
16. Jahagirdar D, Walters MK, Novotney A, Brewer ED, Frank TD, Carter A, et al. Global, regional, and national sex-specific burden and control of the HIV epidemic, 1990–2019, for 204 countries and territories: the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2019. The Lancet HIV. 2021;8(10):e633-e51.
17. Karim F, Moosa M, Gosnell B, Cele S, Giandhari J, Pillay S, et al. Persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection and intra-host evolution in association with advanced HIV infection. medRxiv. 2021:2021.06.03.21258228.
18. Gao S-J, Guo H, Luo G. Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, a global urgent public health alert! Journal of Medical Virology.n/a(n/a).
19. Kupferschmidt K, Where did ‘weird’ Omicron come from? Science. 1 December 2021. https://www.science.org/content/article/where-did-weird-omicron-come.
20. Chen J, Wang R, Gilby NB, Wei G-W. Omicron (B.1.1.529): Infectivity, vaccine breakthrough, and antibody resistance. ArXiv. 2021:arXiv:2112.01318v1.
21. Daria S, Bhuiyan MA, Islam MR. Detection of highly muted coronavirus variant Omicron (B.1.1.529) is triggering the alarm for South Asian countries: Associated risk factors and preventive actions. Journal of Medical Virology.n/a(n/a).
22. Cathcart AL, Havenar-Daughton C, Lempp FA, Ma D, Schmid MA, Agostini ML, et al. The dual function monoclonal antibodies VIR-7831 and VIR-7832 demonstrate potent in vitro and in vivo activity against SARS-CoV-2. bioRxiv. 2021:2021.03.09.434607.
23. Ying B, Whitener B, VanBlargan LA, Hassan AO, Shrihari S, Liang C-Y, et al. Protective activity of mRNA vaccines against ancestral and variant SARS-CoV-2 strains. Science Translational Medicine.0(0):eabm3302.
24. Krause PR, Fleming TR, Longini IM, Peto R, Briand S, Heymann DL, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Vaccines. New England Journal of Medicine. 2021;385(2):179-86.
25. Kupferschmidt K, ‘Patience is crucial’: Why we won’t know for weeks how dangerous Omicron is. Science. 27 November 2021. https://www.science.org/content/article/patience-crucial-why-we-won-t-know-weeks-how-dangerous-omicron.
26. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Statement on B.1.1.529 (Omicron variant). 26 November 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2021/s1126-B11-529-omicron.html.
27. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. How to Protect Yourself & Others. 29 November 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html.
28. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 Travel Recommendations by Destination. 13 December 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/map-and-travel-notices.html.
29. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Expands COVID-19 Booster Recommendations. 29 November 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2021/s1129-booster-recommendations.html.
30. Sallis R, Young DR, Tartof SY, Sallis JF, Sall J, Li Q, et al. Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes: a study in 48 440 adult patients. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2021;55(19):1099-105.
31. da Silveira MP, da Silva Fagundes KK, Bizuti MR, Starck É, Rossi RC, de Resende e Silva DT. Physical exercise as a tool to help the immune system against COVID-19: an integrative review of the current literature. Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 2021;21(1):15-28.
32. Calder PC. Nutrition and immunity: lessons for COVID-19. Nutrition & Diabetes. 2021;11(1):19.
33. Patanavanich R, Glantz SA. Smoking Is Associated With COVID-19 Progression: A Meta-analysis. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2020;22(9):1653-6.
34. Calina D, Hartung T, Mardare I, Mitroi M, Poulas K, Tsatsakis A, et al. COVID-19 pandemic and alcohol consumption: Impacts and interconnections. Toxicology Reports. 2021;8:529-35.
35. Taherizadeh Z, Rahmani S, Alidadi F, et al. Cognitive Consequences of Social Isolation During COVID-19: side effects and treatments. Authorea. February 23, 2021. doi.org/10.22541/au.161405241.15229546/v1.
36. Bornstein SR, Rubino F, Khunti K, Mingrone G, Hopkins D, Birkenfeld AL, et al. Practical recommendations for the management of diabetes in patients with COVID-19. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2020;8(6):546-50.
37. Ganatra S, Dani SS, Shah S, Asnani A, Neilan TG, Lenihan D, et al. Management of Cardiovascular Disease During Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2020;30(6):315-25.
38. Vyas L, Butakhieo N. The impact of working from home during COVID-19 on work and life domains: an exploratory study on Hong Kong. Policy Design and Practice. 2021;4(1):59-76.
39. Mokhtari R, Jahangir MH. The effect of occupant distribution on energy consumption and COVID-19 infection in buildings: A case study of university building. Building and Environment. 2021;190:107561.
40. Tregoning JS, Flight KE, Higham SL, Wang Z, Pierce BF. Progress of the COVID-19 vaccine effort: viruses, vaccines and variants versus efficacy, effectiveness and escape. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2021;21(10):626-36.
41. Africa Center for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19 Vaccination. https://africacdc.org/covid-19-vaccination/.
42. World Health Organization. Joint Statement on Dose Donations of COVID-19 Vaccines to African Countries. 29 November 2021. https://www.who.int/news/item/29-11-2021-joint-statement-on-dose-donations-of-covid-19-vaccines-to-african-countries.
43. Mohamed K, Rezaei N, Rodríguez-Román E, Rahmani F, Zhang H, Ivanovska M, et al. International Efforts to Save Healthcare Personnel during COVID-19. Acta Biomed. 2020;91(3):e2020044-e.
44. Momtazmanesh S, Saghazadeh A, Becerra JCA, Aramesh K, Barba FJ, Bella F, et al. International Scientific Collaboration Is Needed to Bridge Science to Society: USERN2020 Consensus Statement. SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine. 2021;3(8):1699-703.
45. Mohamed K, Rodríguez-Román E, Rahmani F, Zhang H, Ivanovska M, Makka SA, et al. Borderless collaboration is needed for COVID-19—A disease that knows no borders. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2020;41(10):1245-6.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>