Main Article Content
Fingerprints, Ridge density, Forensic identification, Sexual domorphism
Identification has always been very vital in forensic casework. Fingerprint patterns are population-specific and individualistic, that makes fingerprinting an important biological trait in human biology and forensics. Fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges of the finger-ball, where friction ridges are raised portions of the epidermis. Skin on human fingertips contains ridges and valleys which together forms distinctive patterns. These patterns are fully developed in intra-uterine life and remain unaltered until the death of the individual. Injuries such as cuts, burns and bruises can temporarily damage quality of fingerprints but when fully healed, the patterns are restored. The number of ridges present in a unit area on a fingerprint is called the Fingerprint Ridge Density (FPRD). The epidermal ridge density can be determined by examining two parameters - ridge width and distance between the ridges. The thickness of the epidermal ridges varies between individuals and between the sexes. The present review of literature focuses on the sexual dimorphism on the basis of the FPRD and its possible use in forensic examinations. Most of the studies pertaining to the estimation of sex from the FPRD have been conducted in the last two decades when Mark A. Acree in 1999, devised a method of estimation of sex on Caucasian and African-American descent. The present analysis evaluates the studies found in the PubMed database conducted after Acree, 1999. The estimation of sex from the FPRD is based upon the fact that the females have a fine detailing of ridges and consequently more ridges are covered in a unit space in the fingerprints of females as compared to males. The paper also highlights recent advancements and future perspectives in the area of FPRD. (www.actabiomedica.it)
2. Neumann C, Champod C, Puch‐Solis R, Egli N, Anthonioz A, Bromage‐Griffiths A: Computation of likelihood ratios in fingerprint identification for configurations of any number of minutiae. J Forensic Sci. 2007, 52:54-64.
3. Drahansky M, Dolezel M, Urbanek J, Brezinova E, Kim: TH. Influence of skin diseases on fingerprint recognition. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012, 2012:626148.
4. Champod C, Lennard CJ, Margot P, Stoilovic M. Fingerprints and other ridge skin impressions. CRC press, Florida; 2017.
5. Gutiérrez-Redomero E, Alonso C, Romero E, Galera V: Variability of FPRD in a sample of Spanish Caucasians and its application to sex determination. Forensic Sci Int, 2008, 180:17-22.
6. -Gutiérrez-Redomero E, Alonso MC, Dipierri JE: Sex differences in fingerprint ridge densityFPRDin the Mataco-Mataguayo population. Homo. 2011, 62:487-99.
7. Krishan K, Kanchan T, Ngangom C: A study of sex differences in fingerprint ridge density FPRD in a North Indian young adult population. J Forensic leg Med. 2013, 20:217-22.
8. Khadri SY, Goudar ES, Khadri SY: A study of fingerprint pattern and gender distribution of fingerprint in and around Bijapur. Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences.2013, 6:328-331.
9. Kapoor N, Badiye A: Sex differences in the thumbprint ridge density in a central Indian population. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2015, 5:23-9.
10. Acree MA: Is there a gender difference in fingerprint ridge density? Forensic Sci Int. 1999, 102:35-44.
11. Nayak VC, Rastogi P, Kanchan T, Lobo SW, Yoganarasimha K, Nayak S, Rao NG, Kumar GP, Shetty BS, Menezes RG: Sex differences from fingerprint ridge densityFPRDin the Indian population. J Forensic leg Med. 2010, 17: 84-6.
12. Nayak VC, Rastogi P, Kanchan T, Yoganarasimha K, Kumar GP, Menezes RG: Sex differences from fingerprint ridge densityFPRDin Chinese and Malaysian population. Forensic Sci Int. 2010, 197:67-9. Accessed : 11 April 2020 10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.055
13. Nithin MD, Manjunatha B, Preethi DS, Balaraj BM: Gender differentiation by finger ridge count among South Indian population. J Forensic Leg Med. 2011, 8:79-81. Accessed : 11 April 2020 10.1016/j.jflm.2011.01.006.
14. -Gutiérrez-Redomero E, Sánchez-Andrés Á, Rivaldería N, Alonso-Rodríguez C, Dipierri JE, Martín LM: A comparative study of topological and sex differences in fingerprint ridge densityFPRDin Argentinian and Spanish population samples. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013, 20:419-29.
15. Eshak GA, Zaher JF, Hasan EI, Ewis AA: Sex identification from fingertip features in Egyptian population. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013, 20:46-50.
16. -Gutiérrez-Redomero E, Rivaldería N, Alonso-Rodríguez C, Sánchez-Andrés Á: Assessment of the methodology for estimating ridge density in fingerprints and its forensic application. Sci justice. 2014, 54:199-207.
17. Rivaldería N, Sánchez-Andrés Á, Alonso-Rodríguez C, Dipierri JE, -Gutiérrez-Redomero E: Fingerprint ridge density in the Argentinean population and its application to sex inference: a comparative study. Homo. 2016, 67:65-84.
18. Soanboon P, Nanakorn S, Kutanan W: Determination of sex difference from FPRD in northeastern Thai teenagers. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2016, 6:185-93.
19. Ahmed AA, Osman S: Topological variability and sex differences in fingerprint ridge density FPRD in a sample of the Sudanese population. J Forensic Leg Med. 2016, 42:25-32.
20. Taduran RJ, Tadeo AK, Escalona NA, Townsend GC: Sex determination from fingerprint ridge densityFPRDand white line counts in Filipinos. Homo. 2016, 67:163-71.
21. Kumar AS, Jirli PS, Honnungar RS, Babu RY, Kumar V. “Fingerprint Ridge Density”-A Tool for Sex Determination. Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine. 2017, 39:51-4.
22. Thakar MK, Kaur P, Sharma T. Validation studies on gender determination from fingerprints with special emphasis on ridge characteristics. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2018, 8:1-7.
23. Sánchez-Andrés A, Barea JA, Rivaldería N, Alonso-Rodríguez C, -Gutiérrez-Redomero E. Impact of aging on fingerprint ridge density: Anthropometry and forensic implications in sex inference. Science & justice. 2018, 58:323-34.
24. Cummins H, Midlo C: Palmar and plantar epidermal ridge configurations (dermatoglyphics) in European‐Americans. American journal of physical anthropology. 1926, 9:471-502.
25. Guseva IS, Sorokina TT, Skugarevskaia EI: Papillary pattern of male chronic alcoholics. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1981, 81:85-9.
26. Morris MR, Ludwar BC, Swingle E, Mamo MN, Shubrook JH: A new method to assess asymmetry in fingerprints could be used as an early indicator of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2016, 10: 864-71.
27. Anitha C, Konde S, Raj N, Kumar N, Peethamber P: Dermatoglyphics: A genetic marker of early childhood caries. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2014, 32: 220.
28. Bala A, Deswal A, Sarmah PC, Khandalwal B, Tamang BK : Palmar dermatoglyphic patterns in diabetes mellitus and diabetic with hypertension patients in Gangtok region .Int J Adv Res. 2015, 3:1117-25.
29. Hodges RE, Simon JR. Relationship between fingerprint patterns and Wilson's disease. J Lab Clin Med. 1962, 60:629-40
30. Verbov JL: Dermatoglyphs in leukaemia. J Med Genet. 1970, 7:125.
31. Krishan K, Kanchan T, Sharma R, Pathania A. Variability of palmprint ridge density in a North Indian population and its use in inference of sex in forensic examinations. Homo. 2014, 65:476-488.
32. Fowler KD, Ross J, Walker E, Barritt-Cleary C, Greenfield HJ, Maeir AM. Fingerprint evidence for the division of labour and learning pottery-making at Early Bronze Age Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath, Israel. Plos one. 2020 , 15:e0231046.
33. Krishan K, Kanchan T, Pathania A, Sharma R, DiMaggio JA. Variability of footprint ridge density and its use in estimation of sex in forensic examinations. Med Sci Law. 2015, 55:284-290.
34. Kanchan T, Krishan K, Aparna KR, Shyamsundar S. Is there a sex difference in palm print ridge density? Med Sci Law. 2013, 53:33-39.
35. Kanchan T, Krishan K, Aparna KR, Shyamsunder S. Footprint ridge density: a new attribute for sexual dimorphism. Homo. 2012, 63: 468-480.
36. Krishan K, Ghosh A, Kanchan T, Ngangom C, Sen J: Sex differences in fingerprint ridge density--causes and further observations. J Forensic Leg Med. 2010, 17:172.