Prenatal genetic diagnosis: Fetal therapy as a possible solution to a positive test

Main Article Content

Aysha Karim Kiani
Stefano Paolacci
Pietro Scanzano
Sandro Michelini
Natale Capodicasa
Leonardo D’Agruma
Angelantonio Notarangelo
Gerolamo Tonini
Daniela Piccinelli
Kalantary Rad Farshid
Paolo Petralia
Ezio Fulcheri
Francesca Buffelli
Pietro Chiurazzi
Corrado Terranova
Francesco Plotti
Roberto Angioli
Marco Castori
Ondrej Pös
Tomas Szemes
Matteo Bertelli

Keywords

prenatal diagnosis, prenatal gene therapy, prenatal interventions, prenatal stem cell therapy, fetal drug therapy

Abstract

Background: Fetal abnormalities cause 20% of perinatal deaths. Advances in prenatal genetic and other types of screening offer great opportunities for identifying high risk pregnancies. Methods: Through a literature search, here we summarise what are the prenatal diagnostic technique that are being used and how those techniques may allow for prenatal interventions. Results: Next generation sequencing and non-invasive prenatal testing are fundamental for clinical diagnostics because of their sensitivity and accuracy in identifying point mutations, aneuploidies, and microdeletions, respectively. Timely identification of genetic disorders and other fetal abnormalities enables early intervention, such as in-utero gene therapy, fetal drug therapy and prenatal surgery. Conclusion: Prenatal intervention is mainly focused on conditions that may cause death or lifelong disabilities, like spina bifida, congenital diaphragm hernia and sacrococcygeal teratoma; and may be an alternative therapeutic option to termination of pregnancy. However, it is not yet widely available, due to lack of specialized centers.

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