What we have learned for the future about COVID-19 and healthcare management of it?

Main Article Content

ANDREA BALLINI
Ioannis Alexandros Charitos
Raffaele Del Prete
Adriana Mosca
Francesco Inchingolo
Domenico Carretta
Luigi Santacroce

Keywords

Zoonosis; spillover; coronavirus; pandemics; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19.

Abstract

Background and aim of the work: COVID-19 is a current global pandemic. However, comprehensive global data analyses for its healthcare management are lacking.


Methods: In this study we have researched through published scientific articles and international health care  guidelines to find out actually about our knowledge for this new pandemic from SARS-CoV-2 and related COVID-19 disease that emerged from December 2019 in China in order to better manage this health emergency. Results: The pathogens represented by microorganisms (bacteria, mycetes or viruses) show their effect after days and are responsible for epidemics/pandemics as dangerous as the greater their possibility of transmission, especially by inhalation, and therefore their infectivity.


Conclusions: The appearance of new pathogenic viruses for humans such as the COVID -19, which previously were found only in the animal world occurs through the spillover (is the third documented of an animal coronavirus to humans), it is thought that it could also be the same also for the origin of this virus. Furthermore, the trend of this pandemic in one of the countries most affected by Italy after China was also considered.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 10 |

References

1. World Health Organization. Coronavirus. 2019. https://www.who.int/health‐topics/coronavirus Accessed July 12, 2020
2. Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao G F. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet 2020; 395: p470-473
3. Santacroce L, Charitos IA, Del Prete R. COVID-19 in Italy: An Overview from the First Case to Date. Electron J Gen Med 2020; 17: em235.
4. Benvenuto D, Giovanetti M, Ciccozzi A, Spoto S, Angeletti S, Ciccozzi M. The 2019-new coronavirus epidemic: Evidence for virus evolution. J Med Virol. 2020 Apr;92(4):455-459. Ji W, Wang W, Zhao X, Zai J, Li X. Cross-species transmission of the newly identified coronavirus 2019-nCoV. J Med Virol 2020; 92: 433-440.
5. Canatan D, De Sanctis V. The impact of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) on the genotype of coronaviruses. Acta Biomed 2020; 91: 195-198.
6. Mercurio I, Tragni V, Busco F, De Grassi A, Pierri CL. Protein structure analysis of the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the human ACE2 receptor: from conformational changes to novel neutralizing antibodies, Cell Mol Life Sci 2020; 4: 1-22
7. World Health Organization. Strategies, Plans and Operations, COVID‑19 Strategy update 14 April 2020. Available from: [https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/covid-strategy-update 14april2020.pdf?sfvrsn=29da3ba0_15]
8. World Health Organization. Rational use of personal protective equipment for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and considerations during severe shortages, https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/rational-use-of-personal-protective-equipment-for-coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)-and-considerations-during-severe-shortages. Accessed July 10, 2020
9. Santacroce L, Bottalico L, Charitos IA. The Impact of COVID-19 on Italy: A Lesson for the Future. Int J Occup Environ Med 2020; 1984.
10. L'epidemiologia per la sanità pubblica, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, https://www.epicentro.iss.it/coronavirus/sars-cov-2-dashboard Accessed July 12, 2020
11. Dipartimento della Protezione Civile, Aggiornamento casi COVID-19, http://opendatadpc.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/b0c68bce2cce478eaac82fe38d4138b1 Accessed July 12, 2020
12. American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), What do you need to know about COVID-19? https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/animal-health-and-welfare/covid-19
13. Udugama B, Kadhiresan P, Kozlowski HN, et al. Diagnosing COVID-19: The Disease and Tools for Detection. ACS Nano 2020; 14: 3822-3835.
14. Drosten C, Günther S, Preiser W, et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 1967–1976.
15. Wujtewicz M, Dylczyk-Sommer A, Aszkiełowicz A, Zdanowski S, Piwowarczyk S, Owczuk R .COVID-19 - what should anaethesiologists and intensivists know about it? Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2020; 52: 34-41.
16. Ellul MA, Benjamin L, Singh B, et al. Neurological associations of COVID-19. Lancet Neurol 2020; 2: S1474-4422(20)30221-0
17. Aggarwal G, Lippi G, Michael Henry B. Cerebrovascular disease is associated with an increased disease severity in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A pooled analysis of published literature. Int J Stroke 2020; 15: 385-389.
18. Marzano AV, Genovese G, Fabbrocini G, et al. Varicella-like exanthem as a specific COVID-19-associated skin manifestation: multicenter case series of 22 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2020; 83: 280-285.
19. Di Serio F, Lovero R, D’Agostino D, et al. Evaluation of procalcitonin, Vitamin D and C-reactive protein levels in septic patients with positive emocoltures. Our preliminary experience. Acta Med. Mediterr 2016;32:1911–1914.
20. American Disease Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Priorities for testing patients with suspected COVID-19 infection. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/priority-testing-patients.pdf Accessed July 12, 2020
21. Jeulin H, Salmon A, Bordigoni P, Venard V, Comparison of In-House Real-Time Quantitative PCR to the Adenovirus R-Gene Kit for Determination of Adenovirus Load in Clinical Samples ▿J Clin Microbiol. 2010; 48: 3132–3137
22. Treatment Guidelines. National Institutes of Health. Available at https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/ Accessed July 12, 2020
23. Passarelli PC, Passarelli G, Charitos IA, Rella E, Santacroce L, D’Addona A. COVID-19 and Oral Diseases: How can we Manage Hospitalized and Quarantined Patients while Reducing Risks? Electron J Gen Med 2020; 17: em7945.
24. Santacroce L. Letter in response to the article "Enhancing immunity in viral infections, with special emphasis on COVID-19: A review" (Jayawardena et al.) [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 7]. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020; 14: 927.
25. Cantore S, Ballini A. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic Burst and Its Relevant Consequences in Dental Practice. Open Dent J 2020; 14: 111-112.
26. Pham VH, Gargiulo Isacco C, Nguyen KCD, et al. Rapid and sensitive diagnostic procedure for multiple detection of pandemic Coronaviridae family members SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and HCoV: a translational research and cooperation between the Phan Chau Trinh University in Vietnam and University of Bari "Aldo Moro" in Italy. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020; 24: 7173-7191.
27. Soliman AT, Alyafei F, Elalaily R. COVID-19 virus case fatality rate: How to avoid errors in calculation of data during the outbreak? Acta Biomed 2020; 91: 222-223.
28. Castaldi S, Romano L, Pariani E, Garbelli C, Biganzoli E. COVID-19: the end of lockdown what next? Acta Biomed 2020; 91: 236-238.
29. Sarli L. The Pandemic from COVID 19: a Lesson that we must not forget. Acta Biomed 2020; 91: 5-8.
30. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, COVID-19 situation update worldwide, as of 16 July 2020, https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/geographical-distribution-2019-ncov-cases Accessed July 12, 2020