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Effectiveness of prevention of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among unvaccinated Italian healthcare workers

Authors

  • Giulia Collatuzzo Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
  • Ihab Mansour Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Turin, Italy
  • Catalina Ciocan Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Turin, Italy
  • Giorgia Ditano Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
  • Alessandro Godono Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Turin, Italy
  • Paola Rossello Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
  • Maurizio Coggiola Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Turin, Italy
  • Enrico Pira Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
  • Paolo Boffetta Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Turin, Italy; Stony Brook Cancer Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA
  • Working Group on Sars-Cov-2 prevention Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Turin, Italy

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.23749/mdl.v113i6.13577

Keywords:

Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, occupational safety, personal protective equipment, mask, health care workers, risk assessment, public health

Abstract

Background: We aimed to investigate the association between personal protective equipment (PPE) use and SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods: We analyzed occupational surveillance contact forms followed by a PCR test notified between March and September 2020 by Italian HCWs. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) for positive PCR based on HCWs and contacts characteristics were calculated through multivariable logistic regression models. When multiple contacts were potentially effective for a PCR test, they were weighted by the inverse of their number. Results: Overall, 4,883 contacts reported by 2,952 HCWs were analyzed, and 224 contacts among 144 HCWs had positive PCR. No difference was found according to sex, age, employment, or job title, except for an OR of 0.30 (95%CI 0.11-0.78) for resident physicians, compared to administrative staff. The ORs for use of surgical mask were 0.59 (95%CI=0.40-0.86) for use only by HCW, 0.49 (95%CI=0.22-1.07) only by the infected person, and 0.40 (95%CI=0.27-0.60) by both, compared to use by neither. Use of other PPEs was not associated with infection, while the OR for hand sanitation was 0.61 (95%CI=0.40-0.93).
HCWs reporting fever, cough, and asthenia had a higher risk of infection. Conclusions: Use of surgical masks was associated with a 40-60% lower risk of infection, especially when both HCWs and infected individuals used them. Our results quantify the role played by mask use and hand sanitation in preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission in high-risk circumstances.

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Author Biography

Working Group on Sars-Cov-2 prevention, Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Torino, Turin, Italy

Michele Caniglia, MD, michele.caniglia@unito.it; Denis Longo, MD, dr.denislongo@gmail.com; Carlotta Castagneris, MD, carlotta.castagne226@edu.unito.it; Erminia Citino, MD, erminia.citino@unito.it; Vittorio Accardo, MD, vittorio.accardo@unito.it; Alessandro Beneduce, MD, abeneduce@cittadellasalute.to.it; Gianvito Pellecchia, MD, gpellecchia@cittadellasalute.to.it; Giuseppe Clemente, MD, giclemente@cittadellasalute.to.it; Massimiliano Victor Leone, MD, masleone@cittadellasalute.to.it; Nicolò Milanesio, MD, nmilanesio@cittadellasalute.to.it; Roberto Frammartino, MD, rframmartino@cittadellasalute.to.it; Marco Clari, RN, marco.clari@unito.it; Ida Marina Raciti, MD, iraciti@cittadellasalute.to.it; Elena Olivero, MD, eolivero@cittadellasalute.to.it; Carlo Silvestre, MD, csilvestre@cittadellasalute.to.it.

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