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blind, Charles Barbier, Valentin Haüy, Johann Wilhelm Klein, Maurice Ballu, Louis Braille
In the 16th and 17th century the blind were considered unfortunates who could have no other future than to “to be mocked by idle folk in the public square for their blundering and clumsiness”. Clearly no sort of instruction was considered for such people. The change came at the end of the 18th century, thanks to Valentin Haüy, a philanthropist and teacher of calligraphy, who had also been a pupil of the abbot Michel de l’Épée. short historical excursus from to Valentin Haüy to Charles Barbier de la Serre.