EVALUATION OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN OBESITY, DIETARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INDEX, AND BREAST CANCER RISK AND KNOWLEDGE LEVEL
Keywords:Dietary phytochemical index, breast cancer, obesity
Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers globally and has been reported as the leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Obesity is defined as one of the most important risk factors for breast cancer. On the other hand, oncological studies have reported that regular daily consumption of phytochemicals can reduce the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the association between obesity, dietary phytochemical index (DPI), and breast cancer risk (BCR) and knowledge level (BCKL).
Methods: This observational study was conducted with women aged 18-65 years. Participants filled out sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometric data, breast cancer risk and knowledge level scales via Google forms. Body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were declared by the participants. BMI, waist to height ratio (WtHr), dietary phytochemical index, BCR and BCKL calculations were made by the researchers. Food consumption was recorded with a 24-hour dietary recall.
Results: In terms of BCR, 94.2% of the participants were in the low, 3.3% in the medium, 0.3% in the high, and 2.2% in the highest risk group. Besides, there were significant differences between body weight, height, BMI, WC, WtHr values of BCR groups. However, no significant difference was observed between the DPI consumption of BCR groups. Besides, DPI was not associated with BMI, WC, BCR, and BCKL. On the other hand, BMI was correlated (moderate to strong) with WC and BCR (r=0.719 and r=0.605, respectively). Also, WC was significantly correlated (moderate) with BCR (r=0.475). The association between WC and BCKL (rs=0.088) was statistically significant but not clinically significant.
Conclusion: In conclusion, although BCR was not associated with DPI, it was associated with BMI and WC values, which are the indicators of obesity. In the light of this information, the associations between obesity, DPI, BCR, and BCKL will be understood more clearly in future studies with a large sample in which BCR groups have an equal distribution.
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