Linoleic acid: have we understood how it works in psychopathologies and Ischemic Cardiovascular Diseases?

Main Article Content

Massimo Cocchi
Elisabetta Mondo
Chara Minuto
Giovanni Lercker

Keywords

linoleic acid, psychopatology, cardiovascular disease, membrane mobility

Abstract

The question about Linoleic Acid, which remains arguable, is whether the Linoleic Acid is inversely
correlated to the Cardiovascular Disease or not and whether increasing the intake over the Recommended
Daily Allowance (RDA) is positive or negative. The scientific literature, past and recent, is still
controversial about the matter. To try to answer this controversy, it is important to remember the role of the
Linoleic Acid in the membrane and its relationship with cholesterol. Furthermore, it is important to examine
the effect of the oxidation of Linoleic Acid, its impact on the gut microbiota and the consequences on the gut
epithelial integrity.
Highlights. Nutritional considerations about Linoleic Acid > Characteristic of oxidizability of Linoleic Acid
with respect to the cell membrane function > Linoleic Acid in platelets > The position of Linoleic Acid with
respect to Psychopathology and Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease > Linoleic Acid and its effect on gut bacteria
adhesion to gut epithelial barrier.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 130 | PDF Downloads 109

References

1. Burr GO, Burr, MM. A New Deficiency Disease Produced by the Rigid Exclusion of Fat from the Diet. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1929; 82: 345-367.
2. Holman RT. Biological activities of and requirements for polyunsaturated acids. In: Progress in the Chemistry of Fats and Other Lipids, Vol. 9. Pergamon Press. New York: 1971.p.607-682.
3. Ronald JJ. linoleic acid: A Nutritional Quandary. Healthcare. 2017; 5:25.
4. Lercker G, Cocchi M. Il grasso del latte: membrane, composizione e struttura. Progress in Nutrition. 2010; 12 (2): 183-194.
5. Gunstone FD, Harwood JL, Padley FB. The lipid handbook. London; New York; 1986. p. 453-457.
6. Belitz HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P. Food Chemistry. Springer Verlag ed. Berlin; Heidelberg; New York; London; Paris; Tokyo; 1987. p. 175.
7. Cosgrove JP, Church DF, Pryor WA. The Kinetics of the Autoxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Lipids. 1987; 22(5): 299-304.
8. Gawrisch K, Eldho NV, Holte LL. The Structure of DHA in Phospholipid Membranes. Lipids. 2003; 38: 445-452.
9. Cocchi M, Gabrielli F, Tonello L. Platelet's Fatty Acids Secrets in Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). BMJ. 2013;347.
10. Cocchi M, Tonello L. Bio molecular considerations in Major Depression and Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease. Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 2010; 10: 97-107.
11. Cocchi M, Tonello L, Lercker G. Fatty acids, membrane viscosity, serotonin and ischemic heart disease. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2010: 9:97.
12. Cocchi M, Tonello L. Platelets, Fatty Acids, Depression and Cardiovascular Ischemic Pathology. Progress in Nutrition. 2007; 9: 94-104.
13. Cocchi M, Tonello L, Tsaluchidu S, Puri BK. The use of self-organizing maps to study fatty acids in neuropsychiatric disorders. BMC Psychiatry. 2008; 8: S3.
14. Cocchi M, Tonello L, Bosi S, Cremonesi A, Castriota F, Puri B, Tsaluchidu S. Platelet oleic acid as Ischemic Cardiovascular disease marker. BMJ. 2007.
15. Cocchi M, Minuto C, Tonello L, Gabrielli F, Bernroider G, Tuszynski JA, Cappello F, Rasenick M. Linoleic acid: Is this the key that unlocks the quantum brain? Insights linking broken symmetries in molecular biology, mood disorders and personalistic emergentism. BMC Neuroscience. 2017; 18: 38.
16. McMurchie EJ. Dietary lipids and the regulation of membrane fluidity and function. In: Aloia RC, Curtain CC, Gordon LM editors. Physiological Regulation of Membrane Fluidity. New York: Liss AR; 1988. p.189–237.
17. Cocchi M, Minuto C, Tonello L, Tuszynski JA. Connection between the linoleic acid and Psychopathology: A Symmetry-Breaking Phenomenon in the Brain? Open Journal of Depression. 2015; 4: 41-52.
18. Lee YW, Park HJ, Hennig B, Toborek M. linoleic acid Induces MCP-1 Gene Expression in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells through an Oxidative Mechanism. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2001; 12: 648-654.
19. Araseki M, Kobayashi H, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K. Lipid Peroxidation of a Human Hepatoma Cell Line (HepG2) after Incorporation of linoleic acid, Arachidonic Acid, and Docosahexaenoic Acid. Bioscience, Biotechnology e Biochemistry. 2005; 69(3): 483–490.
20. Silaste M, Rantala M, Alfthan G, Aro A, Witztum JL, Kesaniemi YA, Horkko S. Changes in dietary fat intake alter plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein (a). Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2004; 24: 498–503.
21. Jira W, Spiteller G, Carson W, Schramm A. Strong increase in hydroxy fatty acids derived from linoleic acid in human low-density lipoproteins of atherosclerotic patients. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 1998; 91: 1–11.
22. Reaven P, Parthasarathy S, Grasse BJ, Miller E, Steinberg D, Witztum JL. Effects of oleate rich and linoleate-rich diets on the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidative modification in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1993; 91: 668–76.
23. DiNicolantonio JJ, O’Keefe JH. Omega-6 vegetable oils as a driver of coronary heart disease: the oxidized linoleic acid hypothesis. Open Heart. 2018; 5: e000898.
24. Asselin C, Ducharme A, Ntimbane T, Ruiz M, Fortier A, Guertin MC, Lavoie J, Diaz A, Levy E, Tardif JC, Des Rosiers C. Circulating Levels of linoleic acid and HDL-Cholesterol are Major Determinants of 4-Hydroxynonenal Protein Adducts in Patients with Heart Failure. Redox Biology. 2014; 2: 148-155.
25. Kofler S, Nickel T, Weis M. Role of cytokines in cardiovascular diseases: a focus on endothelial responses to inflammation. Clinical Science. 2005; 108: 205–213.
26. Ross, R. Atherosclerosis: an inflammatory disease. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1999; 340: 115–126.
27. Arif I, Meddings JB, Ratnam S, Sherman PM. Modulation of host cell membrane fluidity: a novel mechanism for the prevention of bacterial adhesion. The American Physiological Society. 1999; 277(1): G201-8.
28. Kankaanpää PE, Salminen SJ, Isolauri E, Lee YK. The influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on probiotic growth and adhesion. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 2001; 194 (2): 149-153.
29. Meei-Yn L, and Chyuan-Liang Y. Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999; 47, 3661−3664.
30. Marklund M, et al. Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies. Circulation. 2019; 21;139(21): 2422-2436.
31. Cocchi M, Minuto C. linoleic acid: A Milestone in Brain Evolution? HUMAN EVOLUTION. 2015; 245-257.
32. Rocquelin G, Guenot L, Justrabo IE, Grynberg A, David M. Fatty Acid Composition of Human Heart Phospholipids: Data from 53 Biopsy Specimens. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 1985; 17: 76-773.
33. Giroud S, Frare C, Strijkstra A, Boerema A, Arnold W, Ruf T. Membrane Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition Regulates Cardiac SERCA Activity in a Hibernator, the Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). PLoS One. 2013; 8: e63111.
34. Harrell MD, Stimers JR. Differential Effects of linoleic acid Metabolites on Cardiac Sodium. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2002; 303: 347-55.