in vitro Enzymatic Carbohydrate Digestion and Spectrophotometric Glycemic Indexes and Glycemic Loads Determination of Some Turkish Breads in vitro Enzymatic Carbohydrate Digestion

Main Article Content

Büşra Yusufoğlu
Mustafa Yaman https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9692-0204
Emine Karakuş

Keywords

carbohydrate digestion, bread, Turkish bread, glycemic index, glycemic load

Abstract

Summary. Objective: Carbohydrates are the most abundant and common organic sources in nature. They are vital substances of whole living organisms. Bread is the main food source of people all over the world and very important issue in human diet as a source of carbohydrate. Bread is the principal food of Turkish People and daily average consumption is around 400 g per person. More than half of the caloric intake is supplied by bread. Besides protein and some vitamins, it’s a basic source of mineral supply in Turkish diet. Glycemic Index (GI) is glucose response of food as a percentage and it is generally made by in vivo methods and expressed as a value between 0 and 100. Foods with GI value more than 70 are (bad) carbonhydrates with high glycemic index. Glycemic load (GL), measures carbonhydrate amount in one portion of one food and gives truer results and is expressed this formula: GY=(GIxconsumed amount of carbonhydrates as gram)/100. Method: In this study, after digestion the variety of some breads commercially sold in our country in vitro conditions, the assays of GI and GL of these products were carried out with spectrophotometric based methods. Result: Whole wheat bread, wheat germ bread, hazelnut-grape bread, gluten-free bread and village bread were calculated using the values of GI and GY as reference carbohydrates using white bread. As a result, it was found that high wheat bread, wheat germ bread and hazelnut-grape bread have higher GI values than 70 (>70), gluten-free bread medium, and village bread was low glycemic index (<55). Conclusion: After that directly we determined glycemic load values of diffrent types of breads such as wheat bread, wheat germ bread and hazelnut-grape bread have higher GL values than  (> 20).

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 66 | PDF Downloads 18

References

References
1. Dewettinck KV, Bockstaele F, Kuhne B, Van de W, Courtens DTM, Gellynck X. Nutritional value of bread: Influence of processing, food interaction and consumer perception. Journal of Cereal Science 2008; 48: 243-257.
2. Gibson N. Development of a rapid assessment method for the glycaemic index. Master’s thesis, University of Pretoria; 2010.
3. Ministry of National Education Republic of Turkey, Gıda Teknolojisi, Ekmek Hamuru Hazırlama, 2012; 19-7.
4. Şimşek S, El SN. In vitro starch digestibility, estimated glycemic index and antioxidant potential of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm. Food Biochemistry 2015; 168: 257-61.
5. Yusufoglu B. Evaluation of breads sold in turkey ın terms of in vitro glycemıc ındex and glycemic load. Master’s thesis, Yildiz Technical University. 2017.
6. Daglioglu O, Tuncel B. Macro and micro mineral contents of Turkish bread types. Nahrung. 1999; 43: 61-62.
7. Scazzina F, Del Rio D, Pellegrini N, Brighenti F. Sourdough bread: Starch digestibility and postprandial glycemic response. Journal of Cereal Science 2009; 49: 419-42.
8. Gibson N, Schönfeldt HC, Pretorius B. Development of a rapid assessment method for the prediction of the glycemic index. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2011; 24: 750-754
9. Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG. The glycemic index: Methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 54: 846-854.
10. The Univesity of Sydney. Search for the Glycemic Index. 2019. Available from: https://www.glycemicindex.com/foodSearch.php.
11. Goñi I, Garcia-Alonso A, Calixto F. A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic ındex. Nutrition Research 1997; 17: 427-437
12. Chung HJ, Shin DH, Lim ST. in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of chemically modified corn starches. Food Research International 2008; 41: 579-585