Body composition and torso muscle strength relationship in athletes

Main Article Content

Bihter Akınoğlu
Tuğba Kocahan


Bioelectrical Impedance, Gender, Isokinetic, Nutrition, Performance, Sport.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and torso isokinetic muscle strength among athletes and compare the parameters between both genders. The study was conducted on 76 female and 162 male athletes from various sports branches. Their body composition measurements were taken by the multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis (Tanita MC-980, 1000 kH, Tokyo, Japan), whereas the torso flexor-extensor and the torso right-left rotator muscle strength by Isokinetic Dynamometer (D.& R. Ferstl GmbH, Hemau, Germany). The body fat percentage, fat mass, torso fat mass and torso fat percentage in female athletes were measured to be higher than the male ones, whereas their lean mass, muscle mass, torso muscle mass and whole torso isokinetic muscle strength values were lower (p>0.05). It was determined that there was a medium to high level of inverse relationship between fat percentage, fat mass, torso fat mass, torso fat percentage and torso muscle strength in all athletes (p<0.05). Moreover, there was a medium to high level of direct relationship between lean body mass, muscle mass, torso muscle mass and torso muscle strength (p<0.05). Female athletes had higher rate of body fat, and lower rate of muscle mass and torso muscle strength than male athletes, and the body composition parameters in all athletes were associated with the torso muscle strength. Therefore, we suggest that the athletes’ training should not only focus on increasing the body muscle strength, but also include special sessions for increasing the muscle mass and optimizing the body fat percentage of male and female athletes. Body composition of the athletes should be monitored regularly with a focus on these parameters.

Abstract 543 | PDF Downloads 217


1. Suchomel TJ, Nimphius S, Stone MH. The Importance of Muscular Strength in Athletic Performance. Sports Med. 2016 Oct;46(10):1419-49.
2. Sutton L, Scott M, Wallace J, Reilly T. Body composition of English Premier League soccer players: influence of playing position, international status, and ethnicity. J Sports Sci. 2009 Aug;27(10):1019-26.
3. Bredella MA. Sex Differences in Body Composition. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;1043:9-27.
4. Meylan CM, Cronin JB, Oliver JL, Rumpf MC. Sex-related differences in explosive actions during late childhood. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Aug;28(8):2097-104.
5. Silva B, Clemente FM. Physical performance characteristics between male and female youth surfing athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2019 Feb;59(2):171-178.
6. Maciejczyk M, Więcek M, Szymura J, Szyguła Z, Wiecha S, Cempla J. The influence of increased body fat or lean body mass on aerobic performance. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 21;9(4):e95797.
7. Köhler A, King R, Bahls M, Groß S, Steveling A, Gärtner S, Schipf S, Gläser S, Völzke H, Felix SB, Markus MRP, Dörr M. Cardiopulmonary fitness is strongly associated with body cell mass and fat-free mass: The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Jun;28(6):1628-1635.
8. Sanders R, Bosak A, Sokoloski M, Nelson H, Kelly J, Feister J. Assessing the Impact of Body Fat Percentage and Lean Mass on Wingate Performance. Int J Exerc Sci: Conference Proceedings. 2018;9(6):111.
9. Thomas C, Comfort P, Chiang C, Jones PA. Relationship between isometric mid-thigh pull variables and sprint and change of direction performance in collegiate athletes. J Trainol, 2015;4(1):6–10.
10. Dumke CL, Pfaffenroth CM, McBride JM, McCauley GO. Relationship between muscle strength, power and stiffness and running economy in trained male runners. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010 Jun;5(2):249-61.
11. Kocahan T, Akınoğlu B. Determination of the relationship between core endurance and isokinetic muscle strength of elite athletes. J Exerc Rehabil. 2018 Jun 30;14(3):413-418.
12. Prieske O, Muehlbauer T, Borde R, Gube M, Bruhn S, Behm DG, Granacher U. Neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer: Role of instability. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016 Jan;26(1):48-56.
13. Prieske O, Muehlbauer T, Granacher U. The Role of Trunk Muscle Strength for Physical Fitness and Athletic Performance in Trained Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2016 Mar;46(3):401-19.
14. Lue YJ, Chang JJ, Chen HM, Lin RF, Chen SS. Knee isokinetic strength and body fat analysis in university students. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2000 Oct;16(10):517-24.
15. Hayashida I, Tanimoto Y, Takahashi Y, Kusabiraki T, Tamaki J. Correlation between muscle strength and muscle mass, and their association with walking speed, in community-dwelling elderly Japanese individuals. PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e111810.
16. Goncalves MM, Marson RA, Fortes MSR, Neves EB, da Silva Novaes J. The Relationship Between Total Muscle Strength and Anthropometric Indicators In Brazilian Army Military. Rbone-Revısta Brasıleıra De Obesıdade Nutrıcao E Emagrecımento. 2017;11(65):330-337.
17. Charlton K, Batterham M, Langford K, Lateo J, Brock E, Walton K, Lyons-Wall P, Eisenhauer K, Green N, McLean C. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance. Nutrients. 2015 Aug 26;7(9):7126-42.
18. Nuñez C, Gallagher D, Grammes J, Baumgartner RN, Ross R, Wang Z, Thornton J, Heymsfield SB. Bioimpedance analysis: potential for measuring lower limb skeletal muscle mass. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999 Mar-Apr;23(2):96-103.
19. Pietrobelli A, Morini P, Battistini N, Chiumello G, Nuñez C, Heymsfield SB. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass: prediction from multiple frequency segmental bioimpedance analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jul;52(7):507-11.
20. Roth R, Donath L, Kurz E, Zahner L, Faude O. Absolute and relative reliability of isokinetic and isometric trunk strength testing using the IsoMed-2000 dynamometer. Phys Ther Sport. 2017 Mar;24:26-31.
21. Till K, Jones B, Emmonds S, Tester E, Fahey J, Cooke C. Sea-sonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristicswithin English academy rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(9):2689—96.
22. Perroni F, Gallotta MC, Pisano S, Reis VM, Emerenziani GP, Guidetti L, Baldari C. Gender differences in anthropometric parameters and technical performance of youth soccer players. Sport Sciences for Health. 2018;14(2):1-7.
23. Lutoslawska G, Malara M, Tomaszewski P, Mazurek K, Czajkowska A, Kęska A, Tkaczyk J. Relationship between the percentage of body fat and surrogate indices of fatness in male and female Polish active and sedentary students. J PhysiolAnthropol. 2014 May 13;33:10.
24. Parsonage JR, Secomb JL, Tran TT, Farley ORL, Nimphius S, Lundgren L, Sheppard JM. Gender Differences in Physical Performance Characteristics of Elite Surfers. J Strength Cond Res. 2017 Sep;31(9):2417-2422.
25. Harbo T, Brincks J, Andersen H. Maximal isokinetic and isometric muscle strength of major muscle groups related to age, body mass, height, and sex in 178 healthy subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Jan;112(1):267-75.
26. Evans K, Refshauge KM, Adams R. Trunk muscle endurance tests: reliability, and gender differences in athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2007 Dec;10(6):447-55.
27. Ćopić N, Dopsaj M, Ivanović J, Nešić G, Jarić S. Body composition and muscle strength predictors of jumping performance: differences between elite female volleyball competitors and nontrained individuals. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Oct;28(10):2709-16.
28. Alizadehkhaiyat O, Hawkes DH, Kemp GJ, Howard A, Frostick SP. Muscle strength and its relationship with skeletal muscle mass indices as determined by segmental bio-impedance analysis. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014 Jan;114(1):177-85.