Main Article Content
Lactobacillus Plantarum, Linoelic acid metabolites, GC MS
Objective: To evaluate the capability of Lactobacillus plantarum to grow and convert polyunsaturated free fatty acids, i.e. linoleic acid (LA) into bioactive and less toxic conjugated fatty acids. Method: Six L. plantarum strains were grown in MRS medium containing LA from 1% to 10% (w/v), and the LA metabolites formed in the medium were identified and quantitated by GC-MS. Result: In respect to the identified LA metabolites, a total of 4 metabolites were detected including linoelaidic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z), 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, and trans,trans-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, propyl ester. Among all the six L. plantarum strains, the best one was L. plantarum 2-3 which showed maximum growth and conversion of linoleic acid to different metabolites from 1% to 10 % (w/v) of LA supplied, while L. plantarum 12-5 showed maximum growth and conversion at higher concentration of LA supplied and showed minimal growth and conversion at lower concentration of LA. Conclusion: Among all the six L. plantarum strains, the best one was L. plantarum 2-3 which showed maximum growth and conversion of LA to different metabolites.
2. Mathieu P, Pibarot P, Després JP. Metabolic syndrome: the danger signal in atherosclerosis. Vasc. Health Risk Manag 2006; 2, 285-302.
3. Niki E. Lipid peroxidation: physiological levels and dual biological effects. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2009; 47: 469-484.
4. Tavakoli Yaraki, M Karami Tehrani F. Apoptosis Induced by 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid in the breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Iran. J. Basic Med. Sci. 2013;16: 653-659.
5. Vangaveti V, Baune BT, Kennedy RL. Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids: novel regulators of macrophage differentiation and atherogenesis. Ther. Adv. Endocrinol. Metab 2010;
6. Yuan H, Li MY, Ma LT, et al. 15-Lipoxygenases and its metabolites 15(S)-HETE and 13(S)-HODE in the development of non-small cell lung cancer 2010; Thorax 65, 321-326
7. Cunnane SC, Guesnet P. Linoleic acid recommendations-a house of cards. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 2011; 85: 399–402.
8. Selhub EM, Logan AC, Bested AC, Fermented foods, microbiota, and mental health: ancient practice meets nutritional psychiatry. J. Physiol. Anthropol. 2014; 33, 1-12.
9. Shah NP, Functional cultures and health benefits. Int. Dairy J.2007; 17: 1262-1277.
10. Younesi E, Ayseli MT. An integrated systems-based model for substantiation of health claims in functional food development. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 2015; 41: 95-100.
11. Gill HS, Rutherfurd KJ. Viability and dose–response on the effects of the immune enhancing lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus in mice.Br. J. Nutr. 2001; 86: 285-289.
12. Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on acute diarrhea in a cohor nonhospitalized children attending day-care centers. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2002; 21: 417-419.
13. Shu Q, GillH S. Immune protection mediated by the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) against Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection in mice. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 2002; 34: 59-64.
14. Jones ML, Chen H, Ouyang W, Metz T, Prakash S. Microencapsulated genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum 80 (pCBH1) for bile acid deconjugation and its implication in lowering cholesterol. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2004; 61-69.
15. Pariza MW, Ha YL. Antimutagenesis and Anticarcinogenesis Mechanisms II, eds Kuroda Y, Shankel D, Waters MD. Plenum, New York.1990; pp 167-170.
16. Jiang J, Bjorck L, Fonden R. Production of conjugated linoleic acid by dairy starter cultures. J. Appl. Microbiol. 1998; 85(1): 95-102.
17. Tung Y Lin, Chin Wen Lin, Chien Hsing Lee. Conjugated linoleic acid concentration as affected by lactic cultures and added linoleic acid Food Chemistry. 1999; 67 :1±5.
18. Tung Y Lin. Conjugated linoleic acid concentration as affected by lactic cultures and additives Food Chemistry.2003; 69: 27±31.
19. TR Dhiman, ED Helmink, DJ Mcmahon, RL Fife, MW Pariza. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content of Milk and Cheese from Cows Fed Extruded Oilseed. Journal of Dairy Science.1999; 82 (2): 412-419.
20. Kishino S, Ogawa J, Ando A, et al. Structural analysis of conjugated linoleic acid produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, and factors Affecting isomer production. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2003; 67(1):179-182.
21. Kim YJ, Liu RH, Bond DR, Russell JB.Effect of linoleic acid concentration on conjugated linoleic acid production by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000; 66 (12):5226-5230.
22. Coakley M, Ross RP, Nordgren M, Fitzgerald G, Devery R, Stanton C.Conjugated linoleic acid biosynthesis by human-derived Bifidobacterium species. J. Appl. Microbiol. 2003; 94 (1):138-145.
23. Alonso L, Cuesta EP, Gilliand SE. Production of free conjugated linoleic acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei of human intestinal origin. J. Dairy Sci. 2003; 86 (6):1941-1946.
24. Tung Y Lin. Conjugated linoleic acid production by cells and enzyme extract of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus with additions of different fatty acids Food Chemistry.2006; 94: 437–441.
25. Ogawa J, Kishino S, Ando A, Sugimoto S, Mihara K, Shimizu S.Production of conjugated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 2005;100(4):355-364.
26. Chung SH, Kim IH, Park HG, et al. Synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid by human-derived Bifido bacterium breve LMC 017: utilization as a functional starter culture for milk fermentation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008; 56 (9):3311-3316.
27. Zeng Z, Lin J, Gong D. Identification of lactic acid bacterial strains with high conjugated linoleic acid- producing ability from natural sauerkraut fermentations. J. Food Sci.2009; 74(4): M154-M158.
28. SS Peng, MD Deng, AD Grund, RA Rosson. Purification and characterization of a membrane-bound linoleic acid isomerase from Clostridium sporogenes, Enzyme Microb Tech. 2007; 40 : 831-839.
29. KEPLER, C. R. and TOVE, S. B. Biohydrogenation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids. J. Biol. Chem. 1967; 242(24): 5686-5692.
30. A Liavonchanka, E Hornung, I Feussner, MG Rudolph, Structure and mechanism of the Propionibacterium acnes polyunsaturated fatty acid isomerase, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006; 103: 2576-2581.
31. A Liavonchanka, MG Rudolph, K Tittmann, M Hamberg, I Feussner. On the mechanism of a polyunsaturated fatty acid double bond isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes, The Journal of biological chemistry. 2009; 284: 8005-8012.
32. Kishino S, Ogawa J, Yokozeki K, Shimizu S. Linoleic acid isomerase in Lactobacillus plantarum AKU1009a proved to be a multi-component enzyme system requiring oxidoreduction cofactors, Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. 2011; 75: 318-322.
33. Kishino S, Takeuchi M, Park SB, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition. PNAS, 2013; 110(44): 17808–17813.
34. Shantha N, Decker EA, Henning B.Comparision of methylation methods for the quantification of Conjugated Linoleic Isomer. J. AOAC Int. 1993; 76: 664-649
35. Stefano Raimondi, Alberto Amaretti, Alan Leonardi, Andrea Quartieri, Caterina Gozzoli, and Maddalena Rossi Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016: 8654317.
36. van Nieuwenhove CP, Oliszewski R, Gonzalez SN, Perez Chaia AB. Conjugated linoleic acid conversion by dairy bacteria cultured in MRS broth and buffalo milk. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2007; 44(5):467-474.
37. Barrett E, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C. Rapid screening method for analyzing the conjugated linoleic acid production capabilities of bacterial cultures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.2007; 73(7):2333-2337.