Culture, gender and coffee drinking in Kuwait

Main Article Content

Ahmad R Allafi
Asma Saleh
Ahmed Aldughpassi
Ahmad R Al-Haifi
Abir Hersi
Farhia Ahmad
Sara Aljluwi


Coffee, Kuwait, Nutritional Knowledge, Starbucks


The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of culture and gender on coffee drinking in Kuwait City, Kuwait. A cross-sectional study was conducted to achieve the objective of the study utilizing an online multiple-choice questionnaire. A total of 1483 participants aged between 18 and 35 years completed the online questionnaire. The largest portion of respondents were within the ages of 18-22 category (93.66 %, n=944), with 351 males (23.7%), and 1132 females (76.3%). 28.8% of males and 31% of females participants visit coffee shops 1-4 times a month, followed by 1-6 times a week (27.6% males, 23.2% females). The most consumed type of coffee among participants was Americano. Participants chose Starbucks as their favorite coffee shops (n=763, 51.4%). 66.7% (n=989) of participants do not check the products’ nutritional facts before purchasing. In terms of gender differences, females consume more coffee and have more calorie knowledge compared to males.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 276 | PDF Downloads 217


1. Samoggia A, Riedel B. Coffee consumption and purchasing behavior review: Insights for further research. Appetite 2018; 129:70–81.
2. International Coffee Organization (ICO). Global coffee Forum. Milan 2015.
3. Wissen B. Kaffeereport. Kaffee in Zahlen. Hamburg 2017.
4. Poole R, Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Fallowfield JA, Hayes PC, Parkes J. Coffee consumption and health: Umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes. BMJ 2017; 359: j5024.
5. Rodriguez-Artalejo F and Lopez-Garcia E. Coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease: A condensed review of epidemiological evidence and mechanisms. J. Agri. Food Chem. 2018; 66, 5257-5263.
6. Cai L, Ma D, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Wang P. The effect of coffee consumption on serum lipids: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2012, 66 (8), 872−877.
7. López-García, E, Orozco-Arbeláez, E, Leon-Muñoz, LM, Guallar-Castillon P, Graciani A, Banegas JR, Rodríguez-Artalejo F. Habitual coffee consumption and 24-h blood pressure control in older adults with hypertension. Clin. Nutr. 2016, 35 (6), 1457−1463.
8. Farah, A. Coffee Constituents. In Coffee: Emerging Health Effects and Disease Prevention; Chu, Y.-F., Ed.; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, U.K., 2012; Chapter 2, pp 21−58, DOI: 10.1002/9781119949893.
9. Jee SH, He J, Appel LJ, Whelton PK, Such I, Klag MJ. Coffee Consumption and Serum Lipids: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2001, 153 (4), 353–362.
10. Rebello SA, van Dam RM. Coffee consumption and cardiovascular health: Getting to the heart of the matter. Curr. Cardiol. Rep. 2013, 15 (10), 403.
11. Kishimoto Y, Tani M, Kondo K. Pleiotropic preventive effects of dietary polyphenols in cardiovascular diseases. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2013, 67 (5), 532−535.
12. Turnbull D, Rodricks JV, Mariano GF, Chowdhury F. Caffeine and cardiovascular health. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2017, 89, 165−185.
13. Wikoff D, Welsh BT, Henderson R, Brorby GP, Britt J, Myers E, Goldberger J, Lieberman HR, O’Brien C et al. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2017, 109 (Part 1), 585−648.
14. Lancaster T, Muir J, Silagy C. The effects of coffee on serum lipids and blood pressure in a UK population. J R Soc Med. 1994;87:506–7.
15. Mensink RP, Lebbink WJ, Lobbezoo IE, et al. Diterpene composition of oils from Arabica and Robusta coffee beans and their effects on serum lipids in man. J Intern Med. 1995;237:543–50.
16. Aro A, Tuomilehto J, Kostiainen E, et al. Boiled coffee increases serum low density lipoprotein concentration. Metabolism. 1987;36:1027–30.
17. Bak AA, Grobbee DE. The effect on serum cholesterol levels of coffee brewed by filtering or boiling. N Engl J Med . 1989;321:1432–7.
18. Bonaa K, Arnesen E, Thelle DS, et al. Coffee and cholesterol: is it all in the brewing? The Tromso Heart Study. Br Med J. 1988;297:1103–4.
19. FAO Statistical Pocketbook- Coffee. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2015.
20. Kuwait Nutrition Surveillance System 2017 Report. Kuwait: Ministry of Health, Administration of Food and Nutrition, Ministry of Health. 2017.
21. Allen A. Coffee Culture- Are female university students aware of the nutritional content of popular coffee drinks (mocha, cappuccino, latte, frappe etc.) and how often are they consumed? – Survey of adult female university students. 2018. A Dissertation Academic Paper, Cardiff Metropolitan University Cardiff School of Health Sciences Department of Healthcare Sciences and Food.
22. Aguirre J. Culture, health, gender and coffee drinking: a Costa Rican perspective. British Food Journal 2015; 118(1):150–63.
23. Loftfield E, Freedman ND, Dodd KW, Vogtmann E, Xiao Q, Sinha R, et al. Coffee Drinking Is Widespread in the United States, but Usual Intake Varies by Key Demographic and Lifestyle Factors. J Nutr. 2016; 146(9):1762–8.
24. Cristovam E, Russell C, Paterson A, Reid E. Gender preference in hedonic ratings for espresso and espresso-milk coffees. Food Quality and Preference 2000; 11(6):437–44.
25. McCrory C, Vanderlee L, White CM, Reid JL, Hammond D. Knowledge of Recommended Calorie Intake and Influence of Calories on Food Selection Among Canadians. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2016; 48(3):199-207.e1.

Most read articles by the same author(s)