Determination of Eating Attitude and Mindful Eating Scores of Patients in Turkey
Main Article Content
Mindful eating, eating disorder, eating attitudes.
The study aims to evaluate the status of eating attitude and mindful eating of adult patients (n=905) who applied to diet polyclinics in hospitals in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a 4-part questionnaire form, including socio-demographic features and nutritional habits, anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40) and Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ-30). Data were analyzed using SPSS 25.0 version. In total, 5.4% of patients had eating disorders; underweight patients were associated significantly with an overall eating disorder (p<0.05), females’ EAT-40 scores were higher than males (p<0.001). Diet application before coming to the clinic, diet type, home delivery fast food consumption and night eating were significantly different associated with an eating disorder (p<0.05). The MEQ-30 total score (x̄±SE) of the patients was 2.82±0.45 (p<0.05) and emotional eating, eating control, awareness, disinhibition and interference differed significantly (p<0.05). Underweight patients’ in both EAT-40 and MEQ-30 total scores differed (p<0.05) in other BMI groups. Disinhibition, emotional eating and eating control had a significant impact (p<0.05) on sub-scales of MEQ-30. EAT-40 total scores were not correlated, but MEQ-30 total scores had a weak correlation (r=0.106; p<0.000) by BMI and a positive correlation between total MEQ-30 and all subscale scores (p<0.000). The findings suggest that differences between eating disorder predisposition and mindful eating sub-scales differed in BMI and eating attitude and of patients’ awareness should be increased and patients can be informed about this issue through further nutrition counseling.
2. World Health Organization Technical Report Series. Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Geneva: WHO (2003). p. 1–149.
3. World Health Organization. Noncommunicable Diseases: Key Facts. (2018). Available online at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/noncommunicable-diseases.
4. Mikkelsen B, Williams J, Rakovac I, Wickramasinghe K, Hennis A, Shin HR, et al. Life course approach to prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. BMJ. (2019). 364:l257.
5. Chen PJ, Antonelli M. Conceptual Models of Food Choice: Influential Factors Related to Foods, Individual Differences, and Society. Foods. 2020;9(12).
6. Roudsari AH, Omidvar N, Amiri P, Kalantari N, Vedadhir A, Eini-Zinab H, et al. Determinants of Food Choice in Iranian Adults: A Life Course Perspective. Ann Nutr Metab. 2017;71:613-619.
7. Aktaş N , Özdoğan Y . Gıda ve Beslenme Okuryazarlığı. Harran Tarım ve Gıda Bilimleri Dergisi. 2016; 20(2): 146-153.
8. Monterrosa EC, Frongillo EA, Drewnowski A, de Pee S, Vandevijvere S. Sociocultural Influences on Food Choices and Implications for Sustainable Healthy Diets. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2020;41(2_suppl):59S-73S.
9. Lindgren, E, Harris, F, Dangour, AD, et al. Sustainable food systems—a health perspective. Sustain Sci. 2018;13(6):1505–1517.
10. Serin Y, Sanlier N. Emotional eating, the factors that affect food intake, and basic approaches to nursing care of patients with eating disorders. J Psychiatr Nurs. 2018;9(2):135-46.
11. Wehling H, Lusher JM. Cognitive and Emotional Influences on Eating Behaviour: A Qualitative Perspective. Nutr Metab Insights. 2019;12.
12. Aikman SN, Min KE, Graham D. Food attitudes, eating behavior, and the information underlying food attitudes. Appetite. 2006;47(1):111-4.
13. Alvarenga MS, Scagliusi FB, Philippi ST. Changing attitudes, beliefs and feelings towards food in bulimic patients. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2008;58(3):274-9.
14. Scaglioni S, De Cosmi V, Ciappolino V, Parazzini F, Brambilla P, Agostoni C. Factors Influencing Children's Eating Behaviours. Nutrients. 2018;10(6).
15. Grayling AC. 'Harvest of hope': A guide to mindful eating. New York Rev Books. 2008;55(8):45-47.
16. Hanly T. Eat, drink and be mindful. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2011;19(2):E1-E2.
17. Hendrickson KL, Rasmussen EB. Mindful Eating Reduces Impulsive Food Choice in Adolescents and Adults. Health Psychol. 2017;36(3):226-35.
18. Hong PY, Lishner DA, Han KH. Mindfulness and Eating: An Experiment Examining the Effect of Mindful Raisin Eating on the Enjoyment of Sampled Food. Mindfulness. 2014;5(1):80-7.
19. Khan Z, Zadeh ZF. Mindful Eating and It's Relationship with Mental Well-Being. Procd Soc Behv. 2014;159:69-73.
20.Bianchi, C.M., Huneau, JF., Le Goff, G. et al. Concerns, attitudes, beliefs and information seeking practices with respect to nutrition-related issues: a qualitative study in French pregnant women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.2016; 16, 306.
21. Fialova, L. Health Education and Lifestyles in the Czech Republic, Psychology of Health - Biopsychosocial Approach, Simon George Taukeni, IntechOpen, (November 5th 2018) DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77364. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/61981
22. Oldershaw, A., Startup, H. and Lavender, T. Anorexia Nervosa and a Lost Emotional Self: A Psychological Formulation of the Development, Maintenance, and Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa. Front. Psychol. 2019;10:219.
23. Harris C. Mindful eating: studies show this concept can help clients lose weight and better manage chronic disease. Today’s Dietitian 2013;15:42.
24. Mason AE, Epel E, Aschbacher K, Moran PJ, Acree M, Hecht F, et al. Reductions in Reward-Driven Eating Mediate Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Program on Weight Loss in Obesity: Data from an Rct. Ann Behav Med. 2016;50:S228-S.
25. Ozkan N, Bilici S. Are anthropometric measurements an indicator of intuitive and mindful eating? Eat Weight Disord-St. 2021;26(2):639-48.
26. Simonson AP, Davis KK, Gibbs BB, Venditti EM, Jakicic JM. Comparison of mindful and slow eating strategies on acute energy intake. Obes Sci Pract. 2020;6(6):668-76.
27. Sloan AL, Colleran KM, Shelley B. A pilot study investigating the association between mindful eating and living (meal), weight loss, and biologic markers of inflammation and metabolism in obese subjects. J Invest Med. 2007;55(1):S95-S.
28. Timmerman GM, Brown A. The Effect of a Mindful Restaurant Eating Intervention on Weight Management in Women. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2012;44(1):22-8.
29. Timmerman GM, Brown A, Mouton MS. Effectiveness of a Mindful Restaurant Eating Intervention on Weight Management. Ann Behav Med. 2011;41:S101-S.
30. Winkens LHH, Elstgeest LEM, van Strien T, Penninx BWJH, Visser M, Brouwer IA. Does food intake mediate the association between mindful eating and change in depressive symptoms? Public Health Nutr. 2020;23(9):1532-42.
31. Manku RS, Egan H, Keyte R, Hussain M, Mantzios M. Dieting, mindfulness and mindful eating: exploring whether or not diets reinforce mindfulness and mindful eating practices. Health Psychol Rep. 2020;8(1):59-67.
32. Garner DM, Garfinkel PE. The Eating Attitudes Test: an index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med. 1979;9(2):273-9.
33. Savaşır I, Erol N. Yeme Tutum Testi:Anoreksiya Nervosa Belirtileri İndeksi. Psikoloji Dergisi 1989;7(23):19-25.
34. Framson C, Kristal AR, Schenk JM, Littman AJ, Zeliadt S, Benitez D. Development and Validation of the Mindful Eating Questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(8):1439-44.
35. Köse G, Tayfur M, Birincioğlu I, Donmez A. Adaptation Study of the Mindful Eating Questiıonnare (MEQ) into Turkish. Journal of Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research. 2016;5(3):125-34.
36. Kose G, Ciplak ME. Does mindful eating have a relationship with gender, body mass index and health promoting lifestyle? Prog Nutr. 2020;22(2):528-35.
37. Köse G TM. BMI, Physical Activity, Sleep Quality, Eating Attitudes, Emotions: Which One is Affected by Mindful Eating? Prog Nutr. 2021;23.
38. Moor KR, Scott AJ, McIntosh WD. Mindful Eating and Its Relationship to Body Mass Index and Physical Activity Among University Students. Mindfulness. 2013;4(3):269-74.
39. Durukan A, Gul A. Mindful eating: Differences of generations and relationship of mindful eating with BMI. Int J Gastron Food S. 2019;18.
40. Anderson LM, Reilly EE, Schaumberg K, Dmochowski S, Anderson DA. Contributions of mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint to BMI, disordered eating, and meal consumption in college students. Eat Weight Disord-St. 2016;21(1):83-90.
41. Anderson ME. Mindful Eating: A Guide to Rediscovering a Healthy and Joyful Relationship With Food. Eat Disord. 2012;20(3):249-51.
42. Basir SMA, Manaf ZA, Ahmad M, Kadir NBA, Ismail WNK, Ludin AFM, et al. Reliability and Validity of the Malay Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ-M) among Overweight and Obese Adults. Int J Env Res Pub He. 2021;18(3).
43. Oral N, Şahin NH. Yeme Tutum Bozukluğunun Kişilerarası Şemalar,Bağlanma, Kişilerarası İlişki Tarzları ve Öfke ile İlişkisi Türk Psikoloji Dergisi. 2008;23(62):3748.
44. Özkan N, Bilici S. Are anthropometric measurements an indicator of intuitive and mindful eating? Eat Weight Disord-St. 2020;26(2):639-48.
45. Sagui-Henson SJ, Radin RM, Fisher SM, Jhaveri K, Brewer J, Cohn MA, et al. Dismantling the Link between Daily Negative Mood and Craving-Induced Eating: Effects of a Mobile Mindful Eating Intervention. Ann Behav Med. 2019;53:S357-S.
46. Santamaria AR, Vazquez IA, Caballero DP, Rodriguez CF. Eating habits and attitudes and their relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI). Eur J Psychiat. 2009;23(4):214-24.
47. Gravel K, Deslauriers A, Watiez M, Dumont M, Bouchard AAD, Provencher V. Sensory-Based Nutrition Pilot Intervention for Women. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(1):99-106.
48. Gravel K, St-Hilaire GO, Deslauriers A, Watiez M, Dumont M, Bouchard AAD, et al. Effect of sensory-based intervention on the increased use of food-related descriptive terms among restrained eaters. Food Qual Prefer. 2014;32:271-6.
49. Köse, G. Can Mindful Eating Help Us When We Struggle With Eating? Mindful Eating Replaces Diets. Türk Spor ve Egzersiz Dergisi. 2020;22(1):72-7.