Fixed and essential oil composition of Hypericum venustum, Hypericum scabrum and Hypericum spectabile species

Main Article Content

Osman Gedik


Essential oil, Fixed oil, H. scabrum, H. venustum, H. spectabile


This study attempts to determine the oil compositions of H. venustum Fenzl, H. scabrum L., and endemic H. spectabile Jaub. & Spach species by extracting the essential oil from the samples taken during the flowering period, the essential oil and fixed oils from the fruits taken during the seed period. Plant samples of these species were collected from the natural flora of Kahramanmaras in 2020. The essential oil content of these species was identified as 0.20- 0.27% in the flowering period, and 1.25%-2.62% in the fruits taken during the seed period. Essential oils were extracted in Neo-clevenger apparatus, fixed oils were extracted in Soxhlet device. The components of the extracted oils were analyzed by GC/MS in the West Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute (BATEM) laboratory. The essential oil samples collected during the flowering period consisted of 35 components, and the main component was α-pinene. This component (α-pinene) was 15.06% in H. venustum, 73.77% in H. scabrum and 60.21% in H. spectabile. The essential oil obtained from the fruits in the seed period held a total of 13 different components, and the main component was similarly α-pinene. This component (α-pinene) was determined to be 90.55% in H. venustum, 89.96% in H. scabrum and 82.88% in H. spectabile. The fixed oil rate in the fruits taken during the seed period varied between 16.89% and 24.43%. In fruit samples, six of the fixed oil components had a ratio of over 91%. The rate of unsaturated fat (81.30-91.23%) in the fruits of the Hypericum plant was considerably higher than the saturated fat rate (7.74-9.78%). The main fixed oil component was unsaturated fatty acids linolenic and linoleic acid.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 28 | PDF Downloads 85


1. Akkemik U. Turkey's natural-exotic tree and shrub II. General Directorate of Forestry Publications, Ankara 2014; pp.680.
2. Ramalhete N, Machado A, Serrano R, Gomes E, Mota-Filipe H, Silva O. Comparative study on the in vivo antidepressant activities of the Portuguese Hypericum foliosum, Hypericum androsaemum and Hypericum perforatum medicinal plants. Ind Crops Prod. 2016; 82: 29-36.
3. Yazaki K, Okada T. Biotechnology of Agricultural Forest. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants VI. Vol. 26, ed. by Bajaja Y. P. S., Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1994; 167-169.
4. Baytop T. Therapy with Medicinal Plants in Turkey. Istanbul, Turkey: Istanbul Univ. 1984; Pub. No. 3255, 166-7.
5. Mukherjee P.K, Suresh B. The evaluation of wound healing potential of Hypericum hookerianum leaf and stem extracts. J Altern Complement Med.2000; 6: 61–9.
6. Oztürk B, Apaydin S, Goldeli E, Ince I, Zeybek U. Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra. extract exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 80: 207–9.
7. Miller A. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum): Clinical effects on depression and other conditions. Altern Med Rev. 1998; 3: 18–26.
8. Stojanovic G, Dordevic A, Smelcerovic A. Do other Hypericum species have medical potential as St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum). Curr Med Chem. 2013; 20: 2273-2295.
9. Unal E.L, Mavi A, Kara A, Cakir A, Engulf M.S, Yildirim A. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some plants used as remedies in Turkish traditional medicine. Pharm Biol. 2008; 46: 207-224.
10. Davis P.H. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1988; 266–400.
11. Keser S, Keser F, Kaygili O, et al. Phytochemical compounds and antiradical, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities of the extracts from Hypericum scabrum L. Flowers. Nat Prod Res. 2020; 34(5): 714-719.
12. Kizil G, Toker Z, Ozen H.C, Aytekin C. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Hypericum scabrum, Hypericum scabroides and Hypericum triquetrifolium. Phytother Res. 2004; 18: 339-341. 10.1002/ptr.1460.
13. Cakir A, Duru M.E, Harmandar M, Ciriminna R, Passannanti S, Piozzi F. Comparison of the volatile oils of Hypericum scabrum L. and Hypericum perforatum in Turkey. Flavour Fragr J. 1997; 12: 285-287.<285::AID-FFJ649>3.0.CO;2-W.
14. Kizil G, Kizil M, Yavuz M, Emen S, Hakimoglu, F. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium and Hypericum scabroides. Pharm Biol. 2008; 46: 231-242.
15. Ozen H.C, Bashan M. The composition of fatty acids in Hypericum scabrum, H. scabroides and H. amblysepalum. Turk J Chem. 2003; 27: 723-725.
16. Korkmaz M, Karakurt, E. Ethnobotanical investigation to determine plants used as folk medicine in Kelkit (Gümüşhane/Turkey) district Erzincan. Biodicon2015; 8(3): 290-303.
17. Smelcerovic A, Spiteller M, Ligon A.P, Smelcerovic Z, Raabe N. Essential oil composition of Hypericum L. species from Southeastern Serbia and their chemotaxonomy. Biochem Syst Ecol. 2007; 35: 99-113.
18. Morteza-Semnani K, Saeedi M, Changizi S. The essential oil composition of Hypericum scabrum L. from Iran. Flavour Fragr J. 2006; 21(3): 513-515.
19. Ozkan E.E, Çelik B.Ö, Mat A. Antimicrobial activities of five endemic Hypericum species from anatolia compared with Hypericum perforatum. Marmara Pharm J. 2019; 23: 114-119.
20. Spitellera M, Ozen T, Smelcerovic A, Zuehlke S, Mimica-Dukić N. Phenolic constituents and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the flowers of Hypericum venustum, Fitoterapia 2008; 79 (3): 191- 193.
21. Toker R, Gölükcü M, Tokgöz H. Effects of distillation times on essential oil compositions of Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz Et. and P.H. Davis. Journal of Essential Oil Research 2017; 29(4): 330-335. DOI: 10.1080/10412905.2016.1276026
22. Uysal Bayar F, Cınar O. Yield and quality parameters of some cultivated Origanum spp. species. Derim 2020; 37(1): 10-17.
23. Garces R, Mancha M. One-step lipid extraction and fatty acid methyl esters preparation from fresh plant tissues. Anal Biochem. 1993; 211(1):139-43. doi: 10.1006/abio.1993.1244.
24. Aydogdu M, Gölükcü M. Nutritional value of huitlacoche, maize mushroom caused by Ustilago Maydis. Food Sci. Technol. 2017; 37(4): 531-535.
25. Baser K.H.C, Ozek T, Nuriddinov H.R, Demirci A.B. Essential oils of two Hypericum species from Uzbekistan. Chem Nat Compd., 2002; 38(1): 54-57.
26. Pirbalouti A.G, Vanani M.F, Craker L, Shirmardi H. Chemical composition and bioactivity of essential oils of Hypericum helianthemoides, Hypericum perforatum and Hypericum scabrum. Pharm Biol, 2014; 52(2): 175-181. ISSN 1388-0209 print/ISSN 1744-5116 online.
27. Sharopov F.S, Gulmurodov I.S, Setzer W.N. Essential oil composition of Hypericum perforatum L. and Hypericum scabrum L. growing wild in Tajikistan. J Chem Pharm Res. 2010; 2(6): 284-290. ISSN No: 0975-7384.
28. Tanker N. Studies on Hypericum scabrum L.. J. Fac. Pharm. Ankara , 1971; 1(1):10-15.
29. Gedik O, Uslu O.S, Kocabas Y.Z. Determination of fixed fat ratios and components of two different Hypericum Species. 2nd International Conference on Agriculture, Technology, Engineering and Sciences (ICATES 2019), 18-20 September 2019, pp. 284-291, Lviv, Ukraine.